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Nocturnal epilepsy
 
04:25
Nocturnal epilepsy is a seizure disorder in which seizures occur only while sleeping. Several common forms of epilepsy, including frontal lobe epilepsy, can manifest in a nocturnal state. Epilepsy can be nocturnal if the form of epilepsy only triggers seizures while one is asleep, or if one normally has seizures that occur at that time. In the latter example, if the subject stays awake at a time when he is normally sleeping, the subject may have the seizure while awake. Noting this, it is important for the subject to maintain a proper sleeping cycle. Diverting from proper sleep patterns can trigger more frequent epileptic symptoms in people who are diagnosed with nocturnal epilepsy and as mentioned before, even while awake. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 16326 Audiopedia
Pregnancy over age 50
 
04:50
Pregnancy over age 50 has, over recent years, become more possible for women, due to recent advances in assisted reproductive technology, in particular egg donation. Typically, a woman's fecundity ends with menopause, which by definition is 12 consecutive months without having had any menstrual flow at all. During perimenopause, the menstrual cycle and the periods become irregular and eventually stop altogether, but even when periods are still regular, the egg quality of women in their forties is typically dramatically lower than in younger women, making the likelihood of conceiving a healthy baby also dramatically lower, particularly after age 42. Men, in contrast, generally remain fertile throughout their lives, although the risk of genetic defects is greatly increased due to the paternal age effect. Other sources claim that men might experience a decline in fertility starting in their late 30s. In the United States, between 1997 and 1999, 539 births were reported among mothers over age 50, with 194 being over 55. According to statistics from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, in the Britain, more than 20 babies are born to women over age 50 per year through in-vitro fertilization with the use of donor oocytes (eggs). This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 34949 Audiopedia
Lady Louise Windsor
 
04:25
Lady Louise Windsor (Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 November 2003) is the elder child and only daughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex. She is the youngest granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Lady Louise is currently tenth in the line of succession to succeed her grandmother. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 20133 Audiopedia
Bumpy Johnson
 
07:55
Ellsworth Raymond Johnson (October 31, 1905 – July 7, 1968) — known as "Bumpy" Johnson — was an American mob boss and bookmaker in New York City's Harlem neighborhood. The main Harlem associate of the Genovese crime family, Johnson's criminal career has inspired films and television. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 167928 Audiopedia
Tim Chapman
 
06:24
Timothy Charles "Youngblood" Chapman is a retired American bounty hunter, most noted for his role on A&E TV's Dog the Bounty Hunter, in which he along with Duane "Dog" Chapman and Dog's family track down and capture wanted fugitives. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 45191 Audiopedia
Otto Heinrich Warburg
 
11:04
Otto Heinrich Warburg (/ˈvɑrbʊərɡ/; October 8, 1883 – August 1, 1970), son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate. He served as an officer in the elite Uhlan (cavalry regiment) during the First World War, and was awarded the Iron Cross (1st Class) for bravery. Warburg is considered one of the 20th century's leading biochemists. He was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1931. In total, he was nominated for the award 47 times over the course of his career. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 23019 Audiopedia
Central serous retinopathy
 
07:20
Central serous retinopathy (CSR), also known as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), is an eye disease which causes visual impairment, often temporary, usually in one eye. When the disorder is active it is characterized by leakage of fluid under the retina that has a propensity to accumulate under the central macula. This results in blurred or distorted vision (metamorphopsia). A blurred or gray spot in the central visual field is common when the retina is detached. Reduced visual acuity may persist after the fluid has disappeared. The disease is considered idiopathic but mostly affects white males in the age group 20 to 50 and occasionally other groups. The condition is believed to be exacerbated by stress or corticosteroid use. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 18074 Audiopedia
Variable air volume
 
04:56
Variable Air Volume (VAV) is a type of heating, ventilating, and/or air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Unlike constant air volume (CAV) systems, which supply a constant airflow at a variable temperature, VAV systems vary the airflow at a constant temperature. The advantages of VAV systems over constant-volume systems include more precise temperature control, reduced compressor wear, lower energy consumption by system fans, less fan noise, and additional passive dehumidification. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 18324 Audiopedia
Dialogic
 
05:03
The English terms dialogic and dialogism often refer to the concept used by the Russian philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin in his work of literary theory, The Dialogic Imagination. Bakhtin contrasts the dialogic and the "monologic" work of literature. The dialogic work carries on a continual dialogue with other works of literature and other authors. It does not merely answer, correct, silence, or extend a previous work, but informs and is continually informed by the previous work. Dialogic literature is in communication with multiple works. This is not merely a matter of influence, for the dialogue extends in both directions, and the previous work of literature is as altered by the dialogue as the present one is. Though Bakhtin's "dialogic" emanates from his work with colleagues in what we now call the "Bakhtin Circle" in years following 1918, his work was not known to the West or translated into English until the 1970s. For those only recently introduced to Bakhtin's ideas but familiar with T.S.Eliot, his "dialogic" is consonant with Eliot's ideas in "Tradition and the Individual Talent," where Eliot holds that "the past should be altered by the present as much as the present is directed by the past".[1] For Bakhtin, the influence can also occur at the level of the individual word or phrase as much as it does the work and even the oeuvre or collection of works. A German cannot use the word "fatherland" or the phrase "blood and soil" without also echoing the meaning that those terms took on under Nazism. Every word has a history of usage to which it responds, and anticipates a future response. The term 'dialogic' does not only apply to literature. For Bakhtin, all language — indeed, all thought — appears as dialogical. This means that everything anybody ever says always exists in response to things that have been said before and in anticipation of things that will be said in response. In other words, we do not speak in a vacuum. All language is dynamic, relational and engaged in a process of endless redescriptions of the world. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4727 Audiopedia
M.H. Alshaya Co.
 
06:08
M.H. Alshaya Co. (Alshaya), an international retail franchise operator manages, owns and operates 70+ international brands and 2,600 outlets in the Middle East and North Africa, Russia, Turkey and Europe. The company employees more than 40,000 people. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 20480 Audiopedia
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
 
04:46
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life is a seminal sociology book by Erving Goffman. It uses the imagery of the theatre in order to portray the importance of human social interaction. Originally published in Scotland in 1956 and in the United States in 1959, it was Goffman’s first and most famous book, for which he received the American Sociological Association’s MacIver award in 1961. In 1998, the International Sociological Association listed this work as the tenth most important sociological book of the twentieth century. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 11455 Audiopedia
Martin Luther King, Sr.
 
08:25
Martin Luther King, Sr. (December 19, 1899 – November 11, 1984) was a Baptist pastor, missionary, and an early leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. He was also the father of Martin Luther King, Jr. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 7407 Audiopedia
Triangulation (social science)
 
02:42
In the social sciences, triangulation is often used to indicate that two methods are used in a study in order to check the results. "The concept of triangulation is borrowed from navigational and land surveying techniques that determine a single point in space with the convergence of measurements taken from two other distinct points." The idea is that one can be more confident with a result if different methods lead to the same result. Triangulation is a powerful technique that facilitates validation of data through cross verification from two or more sources. In particular, it refers to the application and combination of several research methods in the study of the same phenomenon. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2458 Audiopedia
Locked-in syndrome
 
04:21
Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a condition in which a patient is aware but cannot move or communicate verbally due to complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles in the body except for the eyes. Total locked-in syndrome is a version of locked-in syndrome wherein the eyes are paralyzed, as well. Fred Plum and Jerome Posner coined the term for this disorder in 1966. Locked-in syndrome is also known as cerebromedullospinal disconnection, de-efferented state, pseudocoma, and ventral pontine syndrome. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 3764 Audiopedia
Reporter gene
 
04:55
In molecular biology, a reporter gene is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants. Certain genes are chosen as reporters because the characteristics they confer on organisms expressing them are easily identified and measured, or because they are selectable markers. Reporter genes are often used as an indication of whether a certain gene has been taken up by or expressed in the cell or organism population. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 11774 Audiopedia
Visa requirements for Indian citizens
 
03:20
Visa requirements for Indian citizens are administrative entry restrictions imposed on citizens of India by the authorities of other states.As of July 2014, Indian citizens have Visa free or Visa-on-arrival access to across 59 countries.Visitors engaging in activities other than tourism, including unpaid work, require a visa or work permit except for Nepal or Bhutan. Indian citizens on June 24 were made eligible for Visa free entry into Reunion Island for 14 days. Bahrain is also planning to expand its Visa-on-Arrival policy for Indians from January 2015. Indian citizens can enjoy Visa free travel to the South Korean territory of Jeju Island for 30 days,provided they land directly into Jeju island. Indian citizens wishing to travel to mainland South Korea must apply for a visa in advance. The country of residence - either temporary or permanent - is a factor in determining the visa requirements for Indian passport holders when visiting some countries. For example, an Indian Citizen residing in the United States holding a Green Card does not need a visa to travel to Canada, Mexico, and many countries and territories in the Caribbean. (See Visa free travel for Green Card holders.) Indian citizens residing in Canada holding Maple Leaf Card (Permanent Resident Card) do not need visa to travel to most Caribbean islands and waived transit visa in United Kingdom. Indian citizens resident in Japan (with valid Alien Registration Cards) can travel to the Republic of Korea (South Korea) for tourism and short business trips. Indian passports with a visa issued by a Schengen Area member, give the holder free access to other Schengen countries as well as a few other non EU countries. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 52468 Audiopedia
National Policy on Education
 
06:37
The National Policy on Education is a policy formulated by the Government of India to promote education amongst India's people. The policy covers elementary education to colleges in both rural and urban India. The first NPE was promulgated in 1968 by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and the second by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 21159 Audiopedia
Facility management
 
09:17
Facility management (or facilities management or FM) is an interdisciplinary field devoted to the coordination of space, infrastructure, people and organization, often associated with the administration of office blocks, arenas, schools, convention centers, shopping complexes, hospitals, hotels, etc. However, FM facilitates on a wider range of activities than just business services and these are referred to as non-core functions. Many of these are outlined below but they do vary from one business sector to another. In a 2009 Global Job Task Analysis the International Facility Management Association (IFMA) identified eleven core competencies of facility management. These are: communication; emergency preparedness and business continuity; environmental stewardship and sustainability; finance and business; human factors; leadership and strategy; operations and maintenance; project management; quality; real estate and property management; and technology. FM has become highly competitive, subject to continuous innovation and development, under pressure to reduce costs and to add value to the core business of the client organisation where possible. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 33898 Audiopedia
Small Is Beautiful
 
02:51
Small Is Beautiful: A Study of Economics As If People Mattered is a collection of essays by British economist E. F. Schumacher. The phrase "Small Is Beautiful" came from a phrase by his teacher Leopold Kohr. It is often used to champion small, appropriate technologies that are believed to empower people more, in contrast with phrases such as "bigger is better". First published in 1973, Small Is Beautiful brought Schumacher's critiques of Western economics to a wider audience during the 1973 energy crisis and emergence of globalization. The Times Literary Supplement ranked Small Is Beautiful among the 100 most influential books published since World War II. A further edition with commentaries was published in 1999. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 3382 Audiopedia
Hierarchy of hazard control
 
03:25
Hierarchy of hazard control is a system used in industry to minimize or eliminate exposure to hazards. It is a widely accepted system promoted by numerous safety organizations. This concept is taught to managers in industry, to be promoted as standard practice in the workplace. Various illustrations are used to depict this system, most commonly a triangle. The hazard controls in the hierarchy are, in order of decreasing effectiveness: This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 13358 Audiopedia
Uniform Commercial Code
 
22:57
The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC or the Code), first published in 1952, is one of a number of uniform acts that have been promulgated in conjunction with efforts to harmonize the law of sales and other commercial transactions in all 50 states within the United States of America. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 5887 Audiopedia
Record to report
 
01:47
Record to report or R2R is the management process for providing strategic, financial and operational feedback to understand how a business is performing. It covers the steps involved in preparing and reporting the overall accounts which are typically stored in a general or nominal ledger and managed by a Controller. The detailed steps involved are: This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 9542 Audiopedia
Dana Reeve
 
06:03
Dana Reeve (born Morosini) (March 17, 1961 – March 6, 2006) was an American actress, singer, and activist for disability causes. She was the wife of actor Christopher Reeve. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 8860 Audiopedia
Political science
 
18:00
Political science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, nation, government, and politics and policies of government. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems, political behavior, and political culture. Political scientists "see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions, and from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works." Political science intersects with other fields; including economics, law, sociology, history, anthropology, public administration, public policy, national politics, international relations, comparative politics, psychology, political organization, and political theory. Although it was codified in the 19th century, when all the social sciences were established, political science has ancient roots; indeed, it originated almost 2,500 years ago with the works of Plato and Aristotle. Political science is commonly divided into distinct sub-disciplines which together constitute the field: This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 34279 Audiopedia
Harmonized System
 
07:42
The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, also known as the Harmonized System (HS) of tariff nomenclature is an internationally standardized system of names and numbers to classify traded products. It came into effect in 1988 and has since been developed and maintained by the World Customs Organization (WCO) (formerly the Customs Co-operation Council), an independent intergovernmental organization based in Brussels, Belgium, with over 200 [1] member countries. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4703 Audiopedia
Anthropocentrism
 
10:06
Anthropocentrism is the belief that human beings are the central or most significant species on the planet, or the assessment of reality through an exclusively human perspective. The term can be used interchangeably with humanocentrism, and some refer to the concept as human supremacy or human exceptionalism. The mediocrity principle is the opposite of anthropocentrism. Anthropocentrism is considered to be profoundly embedded in many modern human cultures and conscious acts. It is a major concept in the field of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy, where it is often considered to be the root cause of problems created by human action within the ecosphere. However, many proponents of anthropocentrism state that this is not necessarily the case: they argue that a sound long-term view acknowledges that a healthy, sustainable environment is necessary for humans and that the real issue is shallow anthropocentrism. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4795 Audiopedia
Trust law
 
39:03
In common law legal systems, a trust is a relationship whereby property is held by one party for the benefit of another. A trust is created by a settlor, who transfers some or all of his or her property to a trustee. The trustee holds that property for the trust's beneficiaries. Trusts have existed since Roman times and have become one of the most important innovations in property law. An owner placing property into trust turns over part of his or her bundle of rights to the trustee, separating the property's legal ownership and control from its equitable ownership and benefits. This may be done for tax reasons or to control the property and its benefits if the settlor is absent, incapacitated, or dead. Trusts are frequently created in wills, defining how money and property will be handled for children or other beneficiaries. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 18979 Audiopedia
International Air Transport Association
 
06:50
The International Air Transport Association (IATA /aɪˈɑːtə/) is a trade association of the world’s airlines. These 240 airlines, primarily major carriers, carry approximately 84% of total Available Seat Kilometers air traffic. IATA supports airline activity and helps formulate industry policy and standards. It is headquartered in Montreal, Canada with Executive Offices in Geneva, Switzerland. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 3658 Audiopedia
William Wallace Lincoln
 
02:40
William Wallace "Willie" Lincoln (December 21, 1850 – February 20, 1862) was the third son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd Lincoln. He died of an illness at the age of 11. He was named after Mary's brother-in-law Dr. William Wallace. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4638 Audiopedia
Melungeon
 
36:45
Melungeon is a term traditionally applied to one of numerous "tri-racial isolate" groups of the Southeastern United States. Historically, Melungeons were associated with the Cumberland Gap area of central Appalachia, which includes portions of East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia, and eastern Kentucky. Tri-racial describes populations thought to be of mixed European, African and Native American ancestry. Although there is no consensus on how many such groups exist, estimates range as high as 200. Melungeons were often referred to by other settlers as of Portuguese or Native American origin. According to the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, in his 1950 dissertation, cultural geographer Edward Price proposed that Melungeons were families descended from free people of color and mixed-race unions between people of African ancestry and Native Americans in colonial Virginia. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 8723 Audiopedia
Batch reactor
 
10:33
The batch reactor is the generic term for a type of vessel widely used in the process industries. Its name is something of a misnomer since vessels of this type are used for a variety of process operations such as solids dissolution, product mixing, chemical reactions, batch distillation, crystallization, liquid/liquid extraction and polymerization. In some cases, they are not referred to as reactors but have a name which reflects the role they perform. A typical batch reactor consists of a tank with an agitator and integral heating/cooling system. These vessels may vary in size from less than 1 litre to more than 15,000 litres. They are usually fabricated in steel, stainless steel, glass-lined steel, glass or exotic alloy. Liquids and solids are usually charged via connections in the top cover of the reactor. Vapors and gases also discharge through connections in the top. Liquids are usually discharged out of the bottom. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 8689 Audiopedia
Chronic venous insufficiency
 
05:09
Chronic venous insufficiency or CVI is a medical condition where the veins cannot pump enough blood back to the heart. The most common cause of CVI is superficial venous reflux which is a treatable condition. As functional venous valves are required to provide for efficient blood return from the lower extremities, this condition typically affects the legs. If the impaired vein function causes significant symptoms, such as edema and ulceration, it is referred to as chronic venous disease. CVI includes varicose veins and superficial venous reflux It is sometimes called chronic peripheral venous insufficiency and should not be confused with post-thrombotic syndrome in which the deep veins have been damaged by previous deep vein thrombosis. Most people with CVI can be improved with treatments to the superficial venous system or stenting the deep system. Varicose veins for example can now be treated by local anaesthetic endovenous surgery. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 6904 Audiopedia
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
 
05:07
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), also known as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS), is a syndrome characterized by headache, confusion, seizures and visual loss. It may occur due to a number of causes, predominantly malignant hypertension, eclampsia and some medical treatments. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, areas of edema (swelling) are seen. The symptoms tend to resolve after a period of time, although visual changes sometimes remain. It was first described in 1996. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4448 Audiopedia
Spatial planning
 
05:30
Spatial planning systems refer to the methods and approaches used by the public and private sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. Spatial planning can be defined as the coordination of practices and policies affecting spatial organization. Spatial planning is synonymous with the practices of urban planning in the United States but at larger scales and the term is often used in reference to planning efforts in European countries. Discrete professional disciplines which involve spatial planning include land use, urban, regional, transport and environmental planning. Other related areas are also important, including economic and community planning. Spatial planning takes place on local, regional, national and inter-national levels and often results in the creation of a spatial plan. A early definition of spatial planning comes from the European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter, adopted in 1983 by the European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning: "Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy." This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2361 Audiopedia
Bancassurance
 
07:47
The bank insurance model, also sometimes known as bancassurance, is the partnership or relationship between a bank and an insurance company whereby the insurance company uses the bank sales channel in order to sell insurance products, an arrangement in which a bank and an insurance company form a partnership so that the insurance company can sell its products to the bank's client base. BIM allows the insurance company to maintain smaller direct sales teams as their products are sold through the bank to bank customers by bank staff and employees as well. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4540 Audiopedia
Operation Unthinkable
 
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Operation Unthinkable was a code-name of two related plans of a conflict between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. Both were ordered by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1945 and developed by the British Armed Forces' Joint Planning Staff at the end of World War II in Europe. The first of the two assumed a surprise attack on the Soviet forces stationed in Germany in order to "impose the will of the Western Allies" on the Soviets and force Joseph Stalin to honour the agreements in regards to the future of Central Europe. When the odds were judged "fanciful", the original plan was abandoned. The code-name was used instead for a defensive scenario, in which the British were to defend against a Soviet drive towards the North Sea and the Atlantic following the withdrawal of the American forces from the continent. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 829 Audiopedia
Jessie Harlan Lincoln
 
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Jessie Harlan Lincoln was the second daughter of Robert Todd Lincoln, the granddaughter of Abraham Lincoln, and the mother of Mary Lincoln Beckwith and Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, the last undisputed Lincoln descendant. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2365 Audiopedia
Bill of Rights 1689
 
07:50
The Bill of Rights is an Act of the Parliament of England passed on 16 December 1689. It was a restatement in statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William and Mary in March 1689 (or 1688 by Old Style dating), inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England. It lays down limits on the powers of the crown and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament, the requirement for regular elections to Parliament and the right to petition the monarch without fear of retribution. It reestablished the liberty of Protestants to have arms for their defence within the rule of law, and condemned James II of England for "causing several good subjects being Protestants to be disarmed at the same time when papists were both armed and employed contrary to law". These ideas about rights reflected those of the political thinker John Locke and they quickly became popular in England. It also sets out—or, in the view of its drafters, restates—certain constitutional requirements of the Crown to seek the consent of the people, as represented in Parliament. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 7782 Audiopedia
Judicial review in English law
 
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Judicial review is a procedure in English administrative law by which the courts in England and Wales supervise the exercise of public power on the application of an individual or organisation. A person who feels that an exercise of such power by a government authority, such as a minister, the local council or a statutory tribunal, is unlawful, perhaps because it has violated his or her rights, may apply to the Administrative Court for judicial review of the decision and have it set aside and possibly obtain damages. A court may also make mandatory orders or injunctions to compel the authority to do its duty or to stop it from acting illegally. Unlike the United States and some other jurisdictions, the English doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty means that the law does not allow judicial review of primary legislation, except in a few cases where primary legislation is contrary to the law of the European Union. A person wronged by an Act of Parliament therefore cannot apply for judicial review except in these cases. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 14314 Audiopedia
Michael Halliday
 
15:59
Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday (often M.A.K. Halliday) (born 13 April 1925) is a British-born Australian linguist who developed the internationally influential systemic functional linguistic model of language. His grammatical descriptions go by the name of systemic functional grammar (SFG). Halliday describes language as a semiotic system, "not in the sense of a system of signs, but a systemic resource for meaning". For Halliday, language is a "meaning potential"; by extension, he defines linguistics as the study of "how people exchange meanings by 'languaging'". Halliday describes himself as a generalist, meaning that he has tried "to look at language from every possible vantage point", and has described his work as "wander[ing] the highways and byways of language". However, he has claimed that "to the extent that I favoured any one angle, it was the social: language as the creature and creator of human society". This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 7601 Audiopedia
Priority date
 
03:30
Priority date is a United States immigration concept – it is the date when a principal applicant first reveals his intent of immigration to the US government. For family-sponsored applicants, the priority date is the date an immigration petition, filed on behalf of him or her, is received by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services. For employment-based immigration beneficiaries, the priority date is the date an immigration petition is filed at USCIS, under categories where a labor certification is not required, or when the United States Department of Labor receives a labor certification application, under categories where a labor certification is required. In all cases, the priority dates are not established until USCIS approves the immigration petition. The date establishes one's place in the queue for a family-sponsored or employment-based or permanent residency permit application. The United States Department of State publishes a monthly Visa Bulletin [1] which lists cut-off dates for different immigration categories and countries of birth. Only those intending applicants with priority dates before the cut-off date are permitted to file their Adjustment of Status applications or attend immigrant visa interviews at consulates. The cut-off dates generally move forward over time as old cases are approved or abandoned. However, in certain cases, such as if a large number of old cases work their way through the system at about the same time, the cut-off dates can actually retrogress. If an individual already has a pending AOS application on file when a retrogression occurs that places the cut-off earlier than the applicant's priority date, USCIS sets the application aside and will not adjudicate it until the priority date is current again. As an example, after months of stagnation, in June 2007 the priority date cut-offs for employment-based second and third-preference applicants advanced dramatically for all countries of birth. On the low end, the cut-off advanced eight months for immigrants from mainland China for EB2 category. EB3 for India-born applicants has moved forward 25 months, the most of any category, thus impacting a huge number of workers with jobs requiring Bachelor's degrees. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 6240 Audiopedia
Enhanced oil recovery
 
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This article is about stimulating production from conventional oil fields. For oil-sand information, see oil sands. Enhanced Oil Recovery (abbreviated EOR) is a generic term for techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field. Enhanced oil recovery is also called improved oil recovery or tertiary recovery (as opposed to primary and secondary recovery). Sometimes the term quaternary recovery is used to refer to more advanced, speculative, EOR techniques. Using EOR, 30 to 60 percent or more of the reservoir's original oil can be extracted, compared with 20 to 40 percent using primary and secondary recovery. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 7262 Audiopedia
Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons
 
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Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons is a professional qualification to practise as a senior surgeon in Ireland or the United Kingdom. It is bestowed by the Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, and Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, though strictly the unqualified initials refer to the London College. Several Commonwealth countries have similar qualifications, among them the FRCSC in Canada, FRACS in Australia and New Zealand, FCS(SA) in South Africa, FCSHK in Hong Kong. The original fellowship was available in general surgery and in certain specialties—ophthalmic or ENT surgery, or obstetrics and gynaecology—which were not indicated in the initials. It came to be taken mid-way through training. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Chartered Engineer (UK)
 
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In the United Kingdom, a Chartered Engineer is an Engineer registered with the Engineering Council. Contemporary Chartered Engineers are degree-qualified and have gained professional competencies through training and monitored professional practice experience. This is a peer reviewed process. The formation process of a Chartered Engineer generally consists of obtaining an accredited Master of Engineering degree, or BEng plus MSc or City and Guilds Post Graduate Diploma in an engineering discipline, and a minimum of four years of professional post graduate experience. The title Chartered Engineer is protected by civil law and is a terminal qualification in engineering. The Engineering Council regulates professional engineering titles in the UK. With more than 180,000 registrants from many countries, designation as a Chartered Engineer is one of the most recognisable international engineering qualifications. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Great Man theory
 
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The Great Man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of "great men", or heroes: highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or political skill utilized their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact. The theory was popularized in the 1840s by Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle. But in 1860 Herbert Spencer formulated a counter-argument that has remained influential throughout the 20th century to the present; Spencer said that such great men are the products of their societies, and that their actions would be impossible without the social conditions built before their lifetimes. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Criterion-referenced test
 
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A criterion-referenced test is a style of test which uses test scores to generate a statement about the behavior that can be expected of a person with that score. Most tests and quizzes that are written by school teachers can be considered criterion-referenced tests. In this case, the objective is simply to see whether the student has learned the material. Criterion-referenced assessment can be contrasted with norm-referenced assessment and ipsative assessment. Criterion-referenced testing was a major focus of psychometric research in the 1970s. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Silica fume
 
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Silica fume, also known as microsilica, is an amorphous polymorph of silicon dioxide, silica. It is an ultrafine powder collected as a by-product of the silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production and consists of spherical particles with an average particle diameter of 150 nm. The main field of application is as pozzolanic material for high performance concrete. It is sometimes confused with fumed silica. However, the production process, particle characteristics and fields of application of fumed silica are all different from those of silica fume. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Activity theory (aging)
 
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The activity theory, also known as the implicit theory of ageing, normal theory of ageing, and lay theory of ageing, proposes that successful aging occurs when older adults stay active and maintain social interactions. It takes the view that the ageing process is delayed and the quality of life is enhanced when old people remain socially active. The activity theory rose in opposing response to the disengagement theory. The activity theory and the disengagement theory were the two major theories that outlined successful aging in the early 1960s. The theory was developed by Robert J. Havighurst in 1961. In 1964, Bernice Neugarten asserted that satisfaction in old age depended on active maintenance of personal relationships and endeavors. The theory assumes that a positive relationship between activity and life satisfaction. One author suggests that activity enables older adults adjust to retirement and is named “the busy ethic”. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Good governance
 
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Good governance is an indeterminate term used in international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources. Governance is "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)". The term governance can apply to corporate, international, national, local governance or to the interactions between other sectors of society. The concept of "good governance" often emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies. The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. Liberal democratic states, concentrated in Europe and the Americas, are often used to set the standards to compare to other states' institutions when talking about governance. Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of "good governance" to a set of requirements that conform to the organization's agenda, making "good governance" imply many different things in many different contexts. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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A. Philip Randolph
 
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Asa Philip Randolph was a leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement, the American labor movement, and socialist political parties. He organized and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first predominantly African American labor union. In the early Civil Rights Movement, Randolph led the March on Washington Movement, which convinced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II. The group then successfully pressured President Harry S. Truman to issue Executive Order 9981 in 1948, ending segregation in the armed services. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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