Search results “Hydrogen bonds energy”
Atomic Hook-Ups - Types of Chemical Bonds: Crash Course Chemistry #22
Atoms are a lot like us - we call their relationships "bonds," and there are many different types. Each kind of atomic relationship requires a different type of energy, but they all do best when they settle into the lowest stress situation possible. The nature of the bond between atoms is related to the distance between them and, like people, it also depends on how positive or negative they are. Unlike with human relationships, we can analyze exactly what makes chemical relationships work, and that's what this episode is all about. If you are paying attention, you will learn that chemical bonds form in order to minimize the energy difference between two atoms or ions; that those chemical bonds may be covalent if atoms share electrons, and that covalent bonds can share those electrons evenly or unevenly; that bonds can also be ionic if the electrons are transferred instead of shared: and how to calculate the energy transferred in an ionic bond using Coulomb's Law. -- Table of Contents Bonds Minimize Energy 01:38 Covalent Bonds 03:18 Ionic Bonds 05:37 Coulomb's Law 05:51 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1700718 CrashCourse
Hydrogen Bonds - What Are Hydrogen Bonds - How Do Hydrogen Bonds Form
In this video we discuss hydrogen bonds. We cover how do hydrogen bonds form, the different elements that take part in hydrogen bonds, and why doesn't oil and water mix. What are hydrogen bonds? An attractive force called a hydrogen bond can exist between certain molecules. These bonds are weaker than ionic or covalent bonds, because it takes less energy to break these types of bonds, however, a large number of these bonds going on can exert a strong force. Hydrogen bonds are the result of an unequal charge distribution on a molecule, these molecules are said to be polar. If we look at a water molecule, we can see the oxygen atom shares electrons with 2 different hydrogen atoms. So, in total this molecule has 10 protons, 8 from oxygen and 1 each from the hydrogen atoms, and a total of 10 electrons, 2 shared between the oxygen atom and hydrogen atom number one, 2 shared between the oxygen atom and hydrogen atom number 2, and the other 6 non shared electrons from the oxygen atom. So, this water molecule is electrically neutral, but it has a partial positive side, the hydrogen side, and a partial negative side, the oxygen side of the molecule. The electrons are not shared equally within the molecule, as they have a higher probability of being found closer to the nucleus of the oxygen atom, giving that end a slightly negative charge. So, the hydrogen atoms end of the molecule will have a slightly positive charge. These charged ends weakly attach the positive end of one water molecule to the negative end of an adjacent water molecule. When water is in liquid form there a few hydrogen bonds, solid form, many bonds, and when water is steam or gas, there are no bonds, because the molecules are too far apart to form any bonds. Hydrogen bonds only form between hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded, or bonds where electrons are being shared and not transferred, to an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom. These bonds make water ideal for the chemistry of life. Hydrogen bonds are also important in the structure of proteins and nucleic acids, which we will cover in later videos. So, now we know that water molecules are polar, or have slightly positive and slightly negative ends, and in fact, many lipids, or fats and oils, are not polar. So their molecules share electrons equally in their bonds. So, these are nonpolar molecules. This means that when water and oil come together they do not form bonds with one another. Even when we try to mix them, the water molecules will eventually separate because their polar molecules are attracted to one another and will form hydrogen bonds, separating the water and the nonpolar oil molecules.
Views: 80224 Whats Up Dude
Chemistry of energy,   covalent bonds.   hydrogen bonds, water and solubility, and  catalysts
This lecture takes you through some applications of chemistry including some covalent bonding, hydrogen bonding and polarity, solubility, and the energy of chemical reactions including the concept of catalysts
Views: 176 Dr Greg
Bond Length and Bond Energy
052 - Bond Length and Bond Energy In this video Paul Andersen explains how the bond length and bond energy are calculated using an energy distance graph. The strength of the bond is determined by the charges in the constituent atoms. As the charge increases the bond energy increases and the bond length decreases. Increasing numbers of bonds will also increase the energy and decrease the length. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Cdang. Deutsch: Prinzip Des Laue-Verfahrens: Ein Einfallender Monochromatischer Röntgenstrahl Trifft Auf Ein Einkristall, Wird an Diesem in Bestimmte Richtungen Gebeugt Und Erzeugt Auf Der Dahinter Liegenden Fotoplatte Ein Beugungsmuster, March 30, 2009. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cliche_de_laue_principe.svg. "File:Ethane-A-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 15, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ethane-A-3D-balls.png. "File:Hexamethylbenzene-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 15, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hexamethylbenzene-3D-balls.png.
Views: 147224 Bozeman Science
Potential Energy Diagram and Bond Dissociation Energy
Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/bond-potential-energy-diagram-and-bond-dissociation-energy Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 17919 AK LECTURES
Ionic Bonding Introduction
To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry This video is an introduction to ionic bonding, which is one type of chemical bonding. Ionic bonds hold together metal and nonmetal atoms. In ionic bonding, electrons are transferred from a metal atom to a nonmetal atom, creating ions. These ions have opposite charge, so they stick together. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC
Views: 1017507 Tyler DeWitt
Ionic and Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, van der Waals - 4 types of Chemical Bonds in Biology
There are four types of chemical bonds essential for life to exist: Ionic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, and van der Waals interactions. We need all of these different kinds of bonds to play various roles in biochemical interactions. These bonds vary in their strengths. In Chemistry, we think of Ionic Bonds and Covalent bonds as having an overlapping range of strengths. But remember, in biochemistry, everything is happening in the context of water. This means Ionic bonds tend to dissociate in water. Thus, we will think of these bonds in the following order (strongest to weakest): Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen, and van der Waals. Also note that in Chemistry, the weakest bonds are more commonly referred to as “dispersion forces.” Related Chemistry video: Ionic Bonds vs Covalent Bonds http://bit.ly/2cUG6C8 Our series on Biology is aimed at the first-year college level, including pre-med students. These videos should also be helpful for students in challenging high school biology courses. Perfect for preparing for the AP Biology exam or the Biology SAT. Also appropriate for advanced homeschoolers. You can also follow along if you are just curious, and would like to know more about this fascinating subject. ***** Our current biology textbook recommendation is Campbell Biology from Pearson. 10th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2mahQTi 11th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2m7xU6w Amazon Used Textbooks - Save up to 90% http://amzn.to/2pllk4B For lighter reading, we recommend: I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life by Ed Yong http://amzn.to/2pLOddQ Lab Girl by Hope Jahren http://amzn.to/2oMolPg ***** This video was made possible by the generous donations of our Patrons on Patreon. We dedicate this video to our VIP Patron, Vishal Shah. We’re so thankful for your support! ***** Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! If you'd like to support more great educational videos from Socratica, please consider becoming our Patron on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/socratica ***** Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time, accepting a position at an exclusive prep school, where she taught biology and chemistry for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios. ****** Creative Commons Picture Credits: Salt crystals https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Halit-Kristalle.jpg Author: W.J. Pilsak Hydrogen Bonding in water https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3D_model_hydrogen_bonds_in_water.svg Author: Qwerter Products in this video: Preparing for the Biology AP* Exam (School Edition) (Pearson Education Test Prep) - http://amzn.to/2qJVbxm Cracking the AP Biology Exam, 2017 Edition: Proven Techniques to Help You Score a 5 (College Test Preparation) - http://amzn.to/2qB3NsZ Cracking the SAT Biology E/M Subject Test, 15th Edition (College Test Preparation) - http://amzn.to/2qJIfHN
Views: 36584 Socratica
Covalent Bonding
019 - Covalent Bonding In this video Paul Andersen explains how covalent bonds form between atoms that are sharing electrons. Atoms that have the same electronegativity create nonpolar covalent bonds. The bond energy and bond length can be determined by graphing the potential energy versus the distance between atoms. Atoms that share electrons unequally form nonpolar covalent bonds. Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "Electronegativities of the Elements (data Page)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electronegativities_of_the_elements_(data_page)&oldid=565034286. "File:Covalent Bond Hydrogen.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Covalent_bond_hydrogen.svg. "File:Halit-Kristalle.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Halit-Kristalle.jpg. "File:Hydrogen-chloride-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hydrogen-chloride-3D-vdW.png. "File:Magnesium Crystals.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Magnesium_crystals.jpg. "File:Methane-3D-space-filling.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Methane-3D-space-filling.svg. "File:Nitrogen-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen-3D-vdW.png. "File:Oxygen Molecule.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oxygen_molecule.png. "File:Periodic Trends.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Periodic_trends.svg. "File:Periodic Trends.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Periodic_trends.svg. "File:Sugar 2xmacro.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sugar_2xmacro.jpg.
Views: 191787 Bozeman Science
Potential Energy vs. Internuclear Distance (Animated) : Dr. Amal K Kumar
How & why pot. energy is released during covalent bond formation? These are explained in this video with thorough animation so that a school student can easily understand this topic. Here the background music is used to create a mind-catching effect. The author is indebted to You Tube Audio Library for free donation of the music 'Golden Days'.
Views: 63754 Dr.Amal K Kumar
Using Gibbs Free Energy
059 - Using Gibbs Free Energy In this video Paul Andersen explains how you can use the Gibbs Free Energy equation to determine if a process is spontaneous or not spontaneous. If the ΔG is less than zero the process is spontaneous. If the ΔG is greater than zero the process is not spontaneous. If the ΔG is equal to zero the process is at equilibrium. The ΔH, ΔS, and T are all used to calculate ΔG. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Hex ice.GIF." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hex_ice.GIF. "File:Josiah Willard Gibbs -from MMS-.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Josiah_Willard_Gibbs_-from_MMS-.jpg. "File:ThermiteReaction.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ThermiteReaction.jpg&oldid=543297076. Gkai. English: Erlenmeyer Flask, May 23, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Erlenmeyer-flask.svg. Haacken, User: Herbert. English: Instant Cold Pack, March 15, 2012. Own work: Herbert Haacken. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2012-03-15_Ruck-Zuck-Pack_K%C3%A4lte_Katalog_Small.gif. Splettstoesser, Thomas. Hydrogen Bonds in Liquid Water Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Tip3P Water Model with CHARMM Force Field), June 25, 2007. self-made with open source visualization software PyMol. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Liquid_water_hydrogen_bond.png.
Views: 328386 Bozeman Science
AMIE Exam Lectures- Materials Science & Engineering | Secondary Bonds | 2.5
Materials Science & Engineering ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Timeline Secondary Bonds -Secondary bonds are also known as van der walls bond -Much Weaker than Chemical Bonds -Exists Between Most Atoms,But Hard to Detect due to Primary Bonds -Formed due to electrical dipole because of charge separation -Dipole Interaction occur between -Induced Dipoles -Induced Dipole and Polar Modecular -Polar Modecules Hydrogen Bond when the participating Molecules has hydrogens -Induced dipole -Fluctuating Diapole in otherwise Electrically symmetric Molecule -Constant Vibration Causes Instantaneous Distortion in the atom/modelcule -Small Electrical Dipole Created -Incuded Polarity in Neighboring atom / Molecule -Attraction Between the Atoms/molecules -Very Weak Force,low bond Energy and M.P. -Polar Molecule ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Video By EdupediaWorld Click Here For Playlist https://www..com/playlist?list=PLJumA3phskPFPkGEkQe6YWZs8Z1-9xkkg All Right Reserved.
Views: 11323 Edupedia World
The Chemical Bond: Covalent vs. Ionic and Polar vs. Nonpolar
Ionic Bond, Covalent Bond, James Bond, so many bonds! What dictates which kind of bond will form? Electronegativity values, of course. Let's go through each type and what they're all about. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Views: 251649 Professor Dave Explains
Hydrogen bonding in water | Water, acids, and bases | Biology | Khan Academy
Reactants and products in reversible and irreversible chemical reactions. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/water-acids-and-bases/hydrogen-bonding-in-water/v/hydrogen-bonding-in-water?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/chemistry--of-life/chemical-bonds-and-reactions/v/intermolecular-forces-and-molecular-bonds?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 260604 Khan Academy
Chemical Bonds
This clip provides an overview of chemical bonds, explaining that a chemical bond is not a physical structure but an energy relationship that involves interactions between the electrons of the reacting atoms. The clip also discusses the various types of chemical bonds (ionic, covalent and hydrogen).
Views: 1530 INTELECOM
Intermolecular Forces - Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole, Ion-Dipole, London Dispersion Interactions
This chemistry video tutorial focuses on intermolecular forces such hydrogen bonding, ion-ion interactions, dipole dipole, ion dipole, london dispersion forces and van deer waal forces. It contains plenty of examples and practice problems to help you understand the most important concepts related to this material. General Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BV-uX6wXQgyqZXvRd0tUUV0&index=3 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ Here is a list of topics: 1. Ion - Ion dipole interactions of KF and CaO 2. Electrostatic Force and Lattice Energy- The effect of charge and ionic radii or size 3. How To Determine Which Ionic Compound has a Higher Melting Point - NaF vs KCl 4. Ion-Dipole Interactions - NaCl and H2O 5. Definition of a Dipole - Polar Molecules & Charge Separation 6. Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Polar Molecules - Partial Charge Electrostatic Attractions of CO 7. Hydrogen Bonding between Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine 8. Intermolecular Forces vs Intramolecular Forces 9. Hydrogen Bonding vs Polar & Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 10. London Dispersion Forces & Van Der Waals Forces 11. Permanent Dipoles and Temporary Induced Dipoles - Distribution of electrons in electron cloud 12. Difference Between Atoms and Ions - Cations vs Anions - Number of Electrons and Protons 13. The relationship between Polarizability and Dispersion Forces 14. How To Determine the Strongest Intermolecular Forces In Compounds Such as MgO, KCl, H2O, CH4, CO2, SO2, HF, CH3OH, LiCl, CH2O, CO, and I2 15. The relationship between Boiling Point and Vapor Pressure 16. Straight Chained vs Branched Alkanes - Boiling Point and Intermolecular Forces - Surface Area 17. Ranking Boiling Point In Order of Increasing Strength for I2, Br2, F2, and Cl2 18. Polar and Nonpolar Organic Compounds - Polarity and Water Solubility 19. Ranking Boiling In Decreasing Order For HF, HCl, HBr, and HI 20. The effect of Molar Mass and Number of electrons on the Overall Intermolecular Force / LDF
Chemistry - Molecular Structure (21 of 45) Bonding Theory - Basics - Hydrogen - H2
Visit http://ilectureonline.com for more math and science lectures! In this video I will explain the basics of the bonding theory of the hydrogen molecule, H2.
Views: 4846 Michel van Biezen
√ Bonding in carbon compounds | Energy | Chemistry
#iitutor #Chemistry #Energy https://www.iitutor.com/ In organic compounds carbon atoms almost always form four bonds. This suggests that the carbon atom’s four valence electrons are all involved in bonding. An examination of simple carbon-base molecules like methane (CH4) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) indicates that in these compounds the carbon atom forms four identical single covalent bonds and that the angles between the bonds are 109.5 . It can be predicted from the valence shell electron pair is required to minimise the electrostatic repulsion between them. The central role of carbon in organic chemistry depends on the fact carbon atoms can form chains of virtually unlimited length containing a succession of carbon-carbons bonds. The valence electrons not involved in forming carbon-carbon bonds are used in forming bonds with atoms of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and halogens. The properties of carbon that allow it to form a huge number and variety of compounds include: • four outer shell valence electrons • can form single, double and triple bonds • can form chains and rings, which can be branched or unbranched • can share electrons with other non-metals Carbon atoms can bond to one another by single, double or triple covalent bonds. Lewis electron-dot diagrams do not show the spatial distribution of bonds in three dimensions. Carbon-carbon single bonds Single covalent bonds around a carbon atom are arranged tetrahedrally (bond angle=109.28 ). Methane is a good example of this arrangement of carbon-hydrogen single bonds. The two simplest molecules containing carbon-carbon single bonds are ethane (CH3CH3) and propane (CH 3CH2CH3). In these compounds each carbon atom forms four single bonds which again have a tetrahedral orientation. In the case of CH3CH3 three of the bonds formed by the carbon atoms are C-H bonds, while the other bond is a C-C bond. The length of the single C-C bond in these compounds has been found to be 0.154 nm. Carbon-carbon double bonds The compound ethene (CH2CH2) is the simplest carbon compound containing a C=C double bond. In this case only two of each carbon atom's four valence electrons are used in bonding with hydrogen atoms. Hence each carbon atom shares two pairs of electrons with another carbon atom. These two pairs of electrons constitute a double bond. The presence of one double covalent bond forces the bonding electrons into a planar arrangement (bond angle=120 ), so the structure of ethane (ethylene) is planar. An examination of compounds such as ethene (CH2CH2 ) indicates that the C=C bond length is 0.134 nm, the bond angles are 120°, and the geometric arrangement of the two carbon atoms and adjoining hydrogen atoms is planar. This again can be explained in terms of the VSEPR theory. In using the VSEPR theory the C=C double bond is viewed as a single region of charge. To minimise electron repulsion the three electron regions around each carbon atom adopt a planar orientation with bond angles of 120°.
Views: 5632 iitutor.com
Chemical Bonding Introduction: Hydrogen Molecule, Covalent Bond & Noble Gases
Chemical bonding introduction video shows how covalent bond means 2 hydrogen atoms can stick together to form a hydrogen molecule, H2. The video also explains why helium cannot form bonds and hence is called a noble gas. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript: Let's do a thought experiment. Imagine a box filled with hydrogen atoms. Like billiard balls on a pool table, atoms actually move, and they do it in straight lines until they hit something … like another hydrogen atom. Oh! See that? They stuck together. They’re not separate hydrogen atoms any more, but a pair of hydrogen atoms moving together. There goes another pair. 4.1 When atoms join up like this, scientists call it a molecule. And they call the join between them a chemical bond. Here comes another hydrogen atom crashing into the hydrogen molecule. But this time it doesn’t stick. Instead it just bounces off. Hydrogen atoms bond once, and that’s it. They’re just like that. Pretty quickly all the hydrogen atoms will collide and pair off into molecules. They will keep hitting each other, but they'll just bounce off. Scientists like to have a shorthand way of writing this molecule thingi. Here’s one way to show it, with the hydrogen symbols joined by a stick to show the chemical bond between the atoms. Another way is to write H2, with the little 2 after the H and a bit lower. A number written this way is called a subscript. What do you think the 2 stands for? It counts the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. Easy, heh! So when we have a balloon filled with hydrogen gas, it really contains trillions of trillions of H2 molecules. Let's do another thought experiment. We'll go back to our box filled with hydrogen atoms, but this time put an oxygen atom in there too. When a hydrogen atom crashes into an oxygen atom, they stick together. But wait, when another hydrogen atom hits, it also sticks to the oxygen. What about a third hydrogen atom? No, that’s if for oxygen. It can only make 2 bonds and then it’s done.
Views: 131952 AtomicSchool
Bonds DON'T Store Energy - Snatoms
Bonds are not like glow sticks, in that energy is not given off when you break them. Energy is released when bonds form. So for a chemical reaction to be exothermic (to give off energy) then the bonds formed during the reaction must give off more energy than was required to break bonds in the reaction. Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://incompetech.com "Pamgaea"
Views: 9539 Snatoms
Bond Strength and Bond Length
This organic chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into bond strength and bond length of single bonds, double bonds, and triple bonds. It also discusses the relative strength of sigma bonds and pi bonds. Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEWpbFLzoYGPfuWUMFPSaoA?sub_confirmation=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ New Organic Chemistry Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6unef5Hz6SU&index=1&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BXP7TUO7656wg0uF1xYnwgm&t=0s
Chemistry: Ionic Bonds vs Covalent Bonds (Which is STRONGER?)
Chemistry: Ionic Bonds vs Covalent Bonds (which is stronger?) Ionic Bonds and Covalent bonds are both considered STRONG intramolecular forces. But do you know which is stronger? You'd think this was a straightforward question. But there's more to it! Each of these bonds has a range of strengths. In this video, we'll discuss how the strength of Ionic Bonds and Covalent bonds are measured so you can compare two chemical bonds. You can click on the links below to jump to sections in the lesson: 0:25 Definitions of ionic and covalent bonds 1:45 Measuring the strength of ionic bonds (lattice energy) 3:08 Some typical lattice energies of ionic bonds 3:50 Measuring the strength of covalent bonds (bond enthalpy) 4:19 Some typical bond enthalpies of covalent bonds Here are our more in-depth videos about the individual bonds. Ionic Bonds: http://bit.ly/1UWsJRL Covalent Bonds: http://bit.ly/1HYZmow3 Metallic Bonds: http://bit.ly/1UoASiZ Intermolecular Forces: http://bit.ly/2xAnoMt ///////////////////////// Our Periodic Table app is FREE in the Google Play store! http://goo.gl/yg9mAF Don't miss our other chemistry videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQw9G... Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! ///////////////////////// To support more videos from Socratica, visit Socratica Patreon https://www.patreon.com/socratica http://bit.ly/29gJAyg Socratica Paypal https://www.paypal.me/socratica We also accept Bitcoin! :) Our address is: 1EttYyGwJmpy9bLY2UcmEqMJuBfaZ1HdG9 ///////////////////////// We recommend the following books: Brown and LeMay Chemistry: The Central Science 13th edition: http://amzn.to/2n5SXtB 14th edition: http://amzn.to/2mHk79f McGraw/Hill Chemistry by Chang & Goldsby http://amzn.to/2mO2khf Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood by Oliver Sacks http://amzn.to/2nlaJp0 Napoleon's Buttons: How 17 Molecules Changed History http://amzn.to/2lJZzO3 ///////////////////////// Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time. Kimberly taught AP Biology and Chemistry at an exclusive prep school for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios. Creative Commons Picture Credits: Butter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Western-pack-butter.jpg Author: Steve Karg, aka Skarg sodium chloride 3D lattice http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NaC... Author: Raj6
Views: 43072 Socratica
Properties of Water
Explore some properties of water with the Amoeba Sisters! It's all about those hydrogen bonds. Video has handout: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts Terms discussed include adhesion, cohesion, surface tension, specific heat - all made possible by those amazing hydrogen bonds. Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology *We mention that water makes up "3/4 of the Earth's surface" and we wish we had said "nearly" This number is going to be an estimate, but here is a source that puts it around 71%. https://water.usgs.gov/edu/earthhowmuch.html We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 700513 Amoeba Sisters
Intermolecular Forces and Boiling Points
Why do different liquids boil at different temperatures? It has to do with how strongly the molecules interact with each other. Find out all the different ways, and how to use them to make predictions about matter! Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Views: 555848 Professor Dave Explains
PhyChem Lec 18 Free Energy and Control of Spontaneity Hydrogen bonds in DNA
For more educational content visit our website - http://www.patterns.remonstrator.org and Sign Up! Subscribe our channel for more videos! Videos are licensed under Creative Commons - http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/legalcode
Hydrogen Bonding (AP Biology)
Hydrogen bonds play a critical role in cell signalling, energy transfer, enzymatic processes, protein and DNA structure and conformation, and many other roles within living organisms. This video discusses the definition of hydrogen bonds and how to spot spot them within biological molecules. Being able to spot these interactions within macromolecules will be able to help you better understand structure and function, as well as possible intermolecular interactions.
Views: 980 The Furiosi Files
Hydrogen Bonds Song
Final project for AP Chem class
Views: 1884 Jon He
Molecular Orbital Theory, Bonding & Antibonding MO, Bond Order, Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into molecular orbital theory. It describes the formation of bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals from the combination of atomic orbitals. It explains how to calculate the bond order of homonuclear diatomic molecule as well as heteronuclear diatomic molecules. It also contains examples and practice problems of homonuclear and heteronuclear molecular ions. Here is a list of topics: 1. Molecular Orbital Theory - Basic Introduction 2. Constructive and Destructive Interference 3. Electrons as waves 4. Bonding and Antibonding Molecular Orbitals 5. Electrostatic forces within a molecule 6. Molecular Orbital Diagram For H2 7. Bond Order, Stability, Energy, and Bond Length 8. Single Bonds, Double Bonds, and Triple Bonds 9. Bond Order Formula 10. MO Diagrams of H2-, He2, Li2 11. Linear Combination of P Orbitals 12. Sigma and Pi Bonds of P orbitals 13. Bonding and Antibonding MO from P orbitals 14. MO Diagram of N2 15. Electron Configuration of Molecules 16. Paramagnetism vs Diamagnetism 17. Paired Electrons vs Unpaired Electrons 18. MO Diagrams For O2, O2+2, C2-2, CN-, and OF+, 19. Molecular Orbital Energy Diagrams 20. Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules 21. Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecular Ions 22. Electronegativity and MO Diagrams 23. Homo and Lumo Molecular orbitals New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Ice structure with thermal energy and showing hydrogen bonds
Made from the Water Module in the VMD package from the University of Illinois.
Views: 353 Gregg Swackhamer
The Molecular Shape of You (Ed Sheeran Parody) | A Capella Science
I'm in love with your bonding orbitals. Support A Capella Science: http://patreon.com/acapellascience Subscribe! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=acapellascience ---------------- NANA APP: iOS: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/record-your-music-sing-nana/id540360389?mt=8 Android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nanamusic.android&hl=en My nana account: http://nana-music.com/users/4398582/ Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/nana.Sing.your.Life/ Instagram: @nanamusic_official Website: https://nana-music.co.jp/en/ ---------------- A CAPELLA SCIENCE STUFF: Patreon: http://patreon.com/acapellascience Facebook: http://facebook.com/acapellascience Twitter: http://twitter.com/acapellascience Bohemian Gravity poster: https://store.dftba.com/products/bohemian-gravity-poster MP3: http://timblais.bandcamp.com Follow me @acapellascience on Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat! ---------------- LYRICS: A dot isn't the best way to try to sum up how electrons come and go They are the states of a matter field that follows and equation that Dirac wrote The Schrodinger part of the whole equation will just lead In sub-c when it expands Now get that Coulomb and add it in with a proton And watch them start to dance As hydrogen it's like "Oh proton I feel your tug Central potential dip down pulling on me But I'm not falling in deep No that would break uncertainty" "Say oh Electrons move too much Slow down your pace and put that orbit on me Come on now follow my lead Come come on now follow my lead Orbitals take the shape they do As stable states of the quantum rules And when a one approaches two They combine and they're bonding Thus hydrogen as a rule Is found in nature as H2 Energy configuring a molecule Diatomically bonding Low high low high low high low high Diatomically bonding (x3) Energy cofiguring a molecule When orbitals take the shape they do 1/2 spin'll give a lepton a twin One up one down in the ground state With S and P in quadruple degeneracy The second shell can be filled up with eight The higher angular powers spread out like beautiful flowers In middle families they come into play Well here's a carbon with 6e This ain't nothing tricksy But we're gonna make some methane today With hydrogen it's like "Oh atoms I feel your tug Got my electrons bugged out pulling on me Come on now settle round me I'll hybridize to sp3" "Say oh Carbon here's touch Spread out 109.47 degrees Come on now follow our lead Come come on now follow our lead" Molecules take the shape they do Combining states of the quantum rules Like when a shell goes sp2 For sigma pi double bonding And as widely as their purview They spread out in the molecule Look at benzene in a ring they hold it true Aromatically bonding Low high low high low high low high Aromatically bonding (x3) Look at benzene in a ring they hold it true When orbitals take the shape they do Come bond with me baby, come bond (x8) Polymers take the shape they do Combining base-level residues Like RNA's ACGU Look they're hydrogen bonding! Peptides make a chain and group In beta pleat sheets and corkscrews With these secondary links they fold and move They're all over your body Come bond with me baby, come bond (x6) You're a chemical machine It's best you knew That molecules take the shape of you. Copyright 2017 Tim Blais and A Capella Science Original music by Ed Sheeran
Views: 4708947 acapellascience
Chemistry  Hydrogen bonding (important questions for BOARD EXAM)
Q1. Why ortho nitro phenol is more volatile than para nitro phenol? Why NH3 is more soluble than PH3? Why ammonia has higher boiling point than phosphine? Why water is more viscous than hydrogen fluoride? Why water is liquid whereas hydrogen sulphide is gas?
Jee main, advance, neet and all competitions exam
Views: 34 GGD GGD
Physical Properties of Alcohol: Hydrogen Bonding, Solubility and Boiling Point
http://leah4sci.com/alcohol Presents: Physical Properties of Alcohol including Hydrogen Bonding, Solubility and Boiling Point Need help with Orgo? Download my free guide ’10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry’ HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ In this video: [0:13] Understanding the Alcohol Functional Group [2:17] Hydrogen Bonds as Strongest IMF [3:35] Difference Between Soluble & Miscible [7:14] Solubility Rules for Molecules in Water [8:12] Effects of Boiling Point on IMF [11:58] Different Boiling Point of Butanol Alcohols have very unique hydrogen interactions. This video explains by looking at the intermolecular forces behind hydrogen bonding, alcohol's solubility in water, miscibility, the structure's effects on boiling point trends, and much more. Links & Resources Mentioned In This Video: Intro to Alcohol Reactions: http://leah4sci.com/introduction-to-alcohol-reactions/ Catch the entire Alcohol Video Series along with the Alcohol Practice Quiz and Cheat Sheet on my website at http://leah4sci.com/alcohol For more in-depth review on Alcohols including practice problems and explanations, come join my online membership site the organic chemistry study hall: http://leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4Sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/leah4sci/ Google+ : https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
Views: 11752 Leah4sci
4.4 What are Hydrogen Bonds ? [SL IB Chemistry]
When hydrogen is covalently bonded to either F,O or N then the molecule has the ability to make hydrogen bonds. These are almost always Intermolecular forces in IB Chemistry. Hydrogen bonds are the strongest intermolecular force in IB Chem. Dr Atkinson converted to renewables soon after. final music by: Katia Galkin https://soundcloud.com/russianhush
Views: 11354 Richard Thornley
ACT Science Data Interpretation Question- Hydrogen Bonds and Activation Energy
#Solution to Testive ACT Question #ID6880
Views: 289 Testive
Hydrogen Bonding
Explanation of the feature required in a covalent molecule for the intermolecular force to be called a hydrogen bond. Followed by examples and a look at the three anomalous properties of water brought about as a result of hydrogen bonding
Views: 4521 MaChemGuy
Hydrogen Bonding Tricks
Thank you all for the support offered. It motivates me to do better. Link for notes: https://jeepmt.wordpress.com My Unacademy profile link: https://unacademy.com/user/sachinranaIITB Link to the books I had used during my preparation: https://bestbooksjeeneetaiims.wordpress.com/2018/05/21/sr
Views: 27705 Sachin Rana [IITB]
Chemical Bonding by Prince (PS) Sir (ETOOSINDIA.COM)
Chemical Bonding video Lecture of Chemistry(Inorganic) for JEE Main and Advanced by PS Sir. He is known for his focused and simplified IIT-JEE teaching to bring to students an easy and analytical methodology towards IIT JEE. This course designed and developed by the experienced faculty of KOTA.Foe Latest Video Update Please visit our website : http://www.etoosindia.com/main.do ------------------------- No.1 online coaching for IIT-JEE | PRE-MEDICAL | CBSE Video Lectures from the Best Faculties of Kota
Views: 311134 Etoos Education
HBE experiment but with sound...
Views: 73 Marco Cioni
Hydrogen Bonding | A-level Chemistry | AQA, OCR, Edexcel
https://goo.gl/31T06Y to unlock the full series of AS & A-level Chemistry videos for the new OCR, AQA and Edexcel specification. In today’s video we’re introduced to hydrogen bonding. We’ll look at how hydrogen bonds occur between electron deficient hydrogen and fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen. Next, we’ll discuss how hydrogen bonds affect the properties of water – more precisely why ice is less dense than water, why surface tension, melting and boiling points are high and how its viscosity is affected. The video concludes with an exam style question solved in detail.
Views: 3938 SnapRevise
Water: A simple covalent substance with hydrogen bonds acting between molecules.
Highly Recommended - Top Tutors for All Subjects at All Levels here: https://spires.co/franklychemistry This short flash animation takes you down to a millionth of a millimetre to where you can see how water molecules behave. If water is colled to 0 Celsius it freezes. At that point the molecules have sufficiently low kinetic energy for the hydrogen bonds to hold the molecules together permanently.
Views: 905 FranklyChemistry
Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, London-Dispersion and Hydrogen Bonds
Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/dipole-dipole-dipole-induced-dipole-london-dispersion-and-hydrogen-bonds Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 27895 AK LECTURES
5. Hydrogen atom energy levels
MIT 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science, Fall 2008 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/5-111F08 Instructor: Catherine Drennan, Elizabeth Vogel Taylor License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 84861 MIT OpenCourseWare
Types Of Chemical Bonds - What Are Chemical Bonds - Covalent Bonds And Ionic Bonds - What Are Ions
In this video we discuss how chemical bonds are formed, we cover ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Chemical bonding is important in many different functions of the body. Transcript and notes The interactions of 2 or more atoms mainly occur at the outermost shell, or energy level. The result of these interactions results in a chemical reaction. In atoms that have fewer or more than 8 electrons in their outermost energy level, reactions occur that result in the loss, gain, or sharing of electrons with another atom to satisfy the octet rule. The octet rule means that elements tend to combine so that each atom has 8 electrons in its outermost shell. This results in the formation of structures such as crystals or molecules. Two atoms of oxygen can combine with one atom of carbon to form carbon dioxide or CO2. There are two main types of chemical bonds, ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Ionic bonds are bonds where the transfer of electrons takes place. Let’s see how this type of bond works. So, here we have a sodium atom, which has an atomic number of 11, meaning it has 11 protons in its nucleus and 11 electrons in its shells or energy levels. Shell one has 2 electrons, shell 2 has 8 electrons and shell 3 has 1 electron. And here we have a chlorine atom, which has an atomic number of 17, so 17 protons and 17 electrons. It has 2 electrons in shell one, 8 in shell 2 and 7 in shell 3. We know that atoms want to have 8 electrons in their outer shell, so Sodium can give up one electron, and now it has 8 electrons in its outer shell, and chlorine can take that electron from sodium and that will give it 8 electrons in its outer shell. Since the sodium atom gave up an electron it now has 11 protons, which are positively charged, and 10 electrons which are negatively charged. This results in the formation of a sodium ion with a positive charge. An ion is an atom or molecule with a net electrical charge due to the loss or gain of an electron. Since the chlorine atom gained an electron, and now has 17 protons and 18 electrons, it is a chlorine ion with a negative charge. The positively charged sodium ion is now attracted to the negatively charged chlorine ion, and NaCl or table salt is formed. This is an ionic bond. So, ionic bonding is when an electron transfer takes place and generates 2 oppositely charged ions. Now for covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons by the outer energy levels or shells of two atoms. The 4 major elements of the body, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen almost always form covalent bonds by sharing electrons. So, for instance, 2 hydrogen atoms can bond by sharing a pair of electrons. Hydrogen is one of the exceptions to the octet rule of having 8 electrons in the outer shell, because it only has one shell. Let’s look at carbon dioxide or co2 again, which form a covalent bond. Oxygen has an atomic mass of 8, so 8 protons, and 8 electrons, 2 in its inner shell and 6 in its outer shell, so, oxygen atoms want 2 more electrons for their outer shell. Carbon has an atomic mass of 6, 6 protons and 6 electrons, 2 in the inner shell and 4 in the outer shell, so it wants 4 more electrons for its outer shell. They can make each other happy by sharing what they have. Oxygen atom number 1 can share 2 of its electrons and the carbon atom can share 2 of its electrons with oxygen atom number one, making oxygen atom number one happy. And oxygen atom number 2 can come in and like oxygen atom number one it can share two of its electrons and the carbon atom has 2 more of its own electrons that it can share with oxygen atom number 2. So now all 3 atoms are happy. By sharing 2 pairs of electrons in this situation a double bond has been formed, and double bonds are important in chemical reactions.
Views: 4001 Whats Up Dude
Pymol for Beginners - video 4: H-bonds
The fourth in a series of videos for beginners of Pymol. This video is about how to display hydrogen bonds in a protein (within the protein and to ligands) and how to change the cut-off values for these hydrogen bonds.
Views: 10471 Swanson Does Science
DAT: Intramolecular & Intermolecular Forces – Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole Moment
► Dental Admission Test / Dental Aptitude Test | Survey of the Natural Sciences | General Chemistry | Liquids, Solids and Solutions | Intramolecular Forces and Intermolecular Forces Part 1A ► Lecture Description: - This lecture introduces and analyzes intramolecular and intermolecular interactions. Topics covered: hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole interactions (dipole moment), London dispersion forces (polarizability), ion dipole forces (interaction energy), covalent bonding, ionic bonding, and metallic bonding. ► Watch more at www.masterthecontent.com | Your career. Our passion. - View complete lessons complete with multiple in-lecture examples - Interactive table of contents makes it easy to search for and jump to specific topics - Interact with instructors ► Connect with us: - https://www.facebook.com/pages/Master-the-Content-DAT-Prep/939295312753463 - https://twitter.com/MTCtoday - https://plus.google.com/u/0/100536207031817220229/about
Views: 304 Master the Content

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