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Oxygen, Nitrogen & Carbon and Covalent Chemical Bonds
 
17:51
This chemistry tutorial video explains how oxygen, nitrogen & carbon make covalent chemical bonds to school & science students . The video shows how the protons and electron shells, and especially the number of electrons in the outer shells determine how many bonds oxygen, nitrogen and carbon can make. Four important molecules, water H2O, ammonia NH3, and methane CH4 are discussed. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript:
Views: 151525 AtomicSchool
How Does Water Bond - Covalent Bonds | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Learn the basics about the covalent bonding of water, when learning about covalent bonding within properties of matter. Water is made from one oxygen atom and two hydrogens. The oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell, but it really wants to have 8 to have a full shell. The hydrogens have one outer shell electron, but want to have two. The atoms share their electrons, forming covalent bonds. So all three atoms have full outer shells, and create a water molecule. Water has two covalent bonds. In water, the bonding electrons spend most of their time nearer the oxygen atom, because it is more ELECTRONEGATIVE. This means that it is electron withdrawing. As the negatively charged electrons are nearer the oxygen atom, the oxygen atom becomes a little bit negative itself, while the hydrogens become a little positive. This is called delta positive and delta negative. Water doesn’t just have any old covalent bonds; it has what we call POLAR COVALENT bonds and is a POLAR molecule. This is really important as it affects how water behaves and reacts with other elements. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Covalent Bonding in Carbon Dioxide | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Carbon dioxide is a product of one of the most important chemical reactions in the world: combustion. Combustion is how a lot of people in the world heat their homes and power their cars. It also unfortunately contributes to the greenhouse effect and global warming. The carbon dioxide molecule is formed from one carbon atom and two oxygens. As an element, carbon only has 4 outer shell electrons and oxygen 6. Double covalent bonds form between the atoms, where two electrons from each atom are shared making 4 bonding electrons in total. The two groups of bonding electrons in carbon dioxide repel each other and this keeps the oxygen atoms as far away from each other as possible. Carbon dioxide is less reactive than water because it has two bonds with each oxygen. This means you need a lot more energy to break the atoms apart. Carbon dioxide's strong double bonds make it very stable and so whenever there are stray carbon and oxygen atoms flying about, they love to get together and form carbon dioxide. Like water, the bonds in carbon dioxide are POLAR COVALENT, making the carbon atom delta positive and the oxygens delta negative. Although, unlike water, carbon dioxide is not a polar molecule overall. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Chemical Bonding Introduction: Hydrogen Molecule, Covalent Bond & Noble Gases
 
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Chemical bonding introduction video shows how covalent bond means 2 hydrogen atoms can stick together to form a hydrogen molecule, H2. The video also explains why helium cannot form bonds and hence is called a noble gas. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript: Let's do a thought experiment. Imagine a box filled with hydrogen atoms. Like billiard balls on a pool table, atoms actually move, and they do it in straight lines until they hit something … like another hydrogen atom. Oh! See that? They stuck together. They’re not separate hydrogen atoms any more, but a pair of hydrogen atoms moving together. There goes another pair. 4.1 When atoms join up like this, scientists call it a molecule. And they call the join between them a chemical bond. Here comes another hydrogen atom crashing into the hydrogen molecule. But this time it doesn’t stick. Instead it just bounces off. Hydrogen atoms bond once, and that’s it. They’re just like that. Pretty quickly all the hydrogen atoms will collide and pair off into molecules. They will keep hitting each other, but they'll just bounce off. Scientists like to have a shorthand way of writing this molecule thingi. Here’s one way to show it, with the hydrogen symbols joined by a stick to show the chemical bond between the atoms. Another way is to write H2, with the little 2 after the H and a bit lower. A number written this way is called a subscript. What do you think the 2 stands for? It counts the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. Easy, heh! So when we have a balloon filled with hydrogen gas, it really contains trillions of trillions of H2 molecules. Let's do another thought experiment. We'll go back to our box filled with hydrogen atoms, but this time put an oxygen atom in there too. When a hydrogen atom crashes into an oxygen atom, they stick together. But wait, when another hydrogen atom hits, it also sticks to the oxygen. What about a third hydrogen atom? No, that’s if for oxygen. It can only make 2 bonds and then it’s done.
Views: 142416 AtomicSchool
Hydrogen Bonds - What Are Hydrogen Bonds - How Do Hydrogen Bonds Form
 
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In this video we discuss hydrogen bonds. We cover how do hydrogen bonds form, the different elements that take part in hydrogen bonds, and why doesn't oil and water mix. What are hydrogen bonds? An attractive force called a hydrogen bond can exist between certain molecules. These bonds are weaker than ionic or covalent bonds, because it takes less energy to break these types of bonds, however, a large number of these bonds going on can exert a strong force. Hydrogen bonds are the result of an unequal charge distribution on a molecule, these molecules are said to be polar. If we look at a water molecule, we can see the oxygen atom shares electrons with 2 different hydrogen atoms. So, in total this molecule has 10 protons, 8 from oxygen and 1 each from the hydrogen atoms, and a total of 10 electrons, 2 shared between the oxygen atom and hydrogen atom number one, 2 shared between the oxygen atom and hydrogen atom number 2, and the other 6 non shared electrons from the oxygen atom. So, this water molecule is electrically neutral, but it has a partial positive side, the hydrogen side, and a partial negative side, the oxygen side of the molecule. The electrons are not shared equally within the molecule, as they have a higher probability of being found closer to the nucleus of the oxygen atom, giving that end a slightly negative charge. So, the hydrogen atoms end of the molecule will have a slightly positive charge. These charged ends weakly attach the positive end of one water molecule to the negative end of an adjacent water molecule. When water is in liquid form there a few hydrogen bonds, solid form, many bonds, and when water is steam or gas, there are no bonds, because the molecules are too far apart to form any bonds. Hydrogen bonds only form between hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded, or bonds where electrons are being shared and not transferred, to an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom. These bonds make water ideal for the chemistry of life. Hydrogen bonds are also important in the structure of proteins and nucleic acids, which we will cover in later videos. So, now we know that water molecules are polar, or have slightly positive and slightly negative ends, and in fact, many lipids, or fats and oils, are not polar. So their molecules share electrons equally in their bonds. So, these are nonpolar molecules. This means that when water and oil come together they do not form bonds with one another. Even when we try to mix them, the water molecules will eventually separate because their polar molecules are attracted to one another and will form hydrogen bonds, separating the water and the nonpolar oil molecules.
Views: 105277 Whats Up Dude
Molecular Orbital Theory, Bonding & Antibonding MO, Bond Order, Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into molecular orbital theory. It describes the formation of bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals from the combination of atomic orbitals. It explains how to calculate the bond order of homonuclear diatomic molecule as well as heteronuclear diatomic molecules. It also contains examples and practice problems of homonuclear and heteronuclear molecular ions. Here is a list of topics: 1. Molecular Orbital Theory - Basic Introduction 2. Constructive and Destructive Interference 3. Electrons as waves 4. Bonding and Antibonding Molecular Orbitals 5. Electrostatic forces within a molecule 6. Molecular Orbital Diagram For H2 7. Bond Order, Stability, Energy, and Bond Length 8. Single Bonds, Double Bonds, and Triple Bonds 9. Bond Order Formula 10. MO Diagrams of H2-, He2, Li2 11. Linear Combination of P Orbitals 12. Sigma and Pi Bonds of P orbitals 13. Bonding and Antibonding MO from P orbitals 14. MO Diagram of N2 15. Electron Configuration of Molecules 16. Paramagnetism vs Diamagnetism 17. Paired Electrons vs Unpaired Electrons 18. MO Diagrams For O2, O2+2, C2-2, CN-, and OF+, 19. Molecular Orbital Energy Diagrams 20. Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules 21. Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecular Ions 22. Electronegativity and MO Diagrams 23. Homo and Lumo Molecular orbitals New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Covalent Bonding | #aumsum
 
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Covalent Bonding. Noble gases have complete outer electron shells, which make them stable. The coming together and sharing of electron pairs leads to the formation of a chemical bond known as a covalent bond. Two chlorine atoms come together and share their electrons to form a molecule of chlorine. In this way, each atom will have eight electrons in its valence shell. As a single pair of electrons is shared between them, the bond is known as a single covalent bond. A single covalent bond is represented by a single dash between the atoms. When two oxygen atoms come together, they each share 2 electrons to complete their octets. Since they share two pairs of electrons, there is a double bond between the oxygen atoms. Similarly, Nitrogen atoms share a triple covalent bond to form a molecule of Nitrogen.
Views: 1449254 It's AumSum Time
Types Of Chemical Bonds - What Are Chemical Bonds - Covalent Bonds And Ionic Bonds - What Are Ions
 
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In this video we discuss how chemical bonds are formed, we cover ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Chemical bonding is important in many different functions of the body. Transcript and notes The interactions of 2 or more atoms mainly occur at the outermost shell, or energy level. The result of these interactions results in a chemical reaction. In atoms that have fewer or more than 8 electrons in their outermost energy level, reactions occur that result in the loss, gain, or sharing of electrons with another atom to satisfy the octet rule. The octet rule means that elements tend to combine so that each atom has 8 electrons in its outermost shell. This results in the formation of structures such as crystals or molecules. Two atoms of oxygen can combine with one atom of carbon to form carbon dioxide or CO2. There are two main types of chemical bonds, ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Ionic bonds are bonds where the transfer of electrons takes place. Let’s see how this type of bond works. So, here we have a sodium atom, which has an atomic number of 11, meaning it has 11 protons in its nucleus and 11 electrons in its shells or energy levels. Shell one has 2 electrons, shell 2 has 8 electrons and shell 3 has 1 electron. And here we have a chlorine atom, which has an atomic number of 17, so 17 protons and 17 electrons. It has 2 electrons in shell one, 8 in shell 2 and 7 in shell 3. We know that atoms want to have 8 electrons in their outer shell, so Sodium can give up one electron, and now it has 8 electrons in its outer shell, and chlorine can take that electron from sodium and that will give it 8 electrons in its outer shell. Since the sodium atom gave up an electron it now has 11 protons, which are positively charged, and 10 electrons which are negatively charged. This results in the formation of a sodium ion with a positive charge. An ion is an atom or molecule with a net electrical charge due to the loss or gain of an electron. Since the chlorine atom gained an electron, and now has 17 protons and 18 electrons, it is a chlorine ion with a negative charge. The positively charged sodium ion is now attracted to the negatively charged chlorine ion, and NaCl or table salt is formed. This is an ionic bond. So, ionic bonding is when an electron transfer takes place and generates 2 oppositely charged ions. Now for covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons by the outer energy levels or shells of two atoms. The 4 major elements of the body, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen almost always form covalent bonds by sharing electrons. So, for instance, 2 hydrogen atoms can bond by sharing a pair of electrons. Hydrogen is one of the exceptions to the octet rule of having 8 electrons in the outer shell, because it only has one shell. Let’s look at carbon dioxide or co2 again, which form a covalent bond. Oxygen has an atomic mass of 8, so 8 protons, and 8 electrons, 2 in its inner shell and 6 in its outer shell, so, oxygen atoms want 2 more electrons for their outer shell. Carbon has an atomic mass of 6, 6 protons and 6 electrons, 2 in the inner shell and 4 in the outer shell, so it wants 4 more electrons for its outer shell. They can make each other happy by sharing what they have. Oxygen atom number 1 can share 2 of its electrons and the carbon atom can share 2 of its electrons with oxygen atom number one, making oxygen atom number one happy. And oxygen atom number 2 can come in and like oxygen atom number one it can share two of its electrons and the carbon atom has 2 more of its own electrons that it can share with oxygen atom number 2. So now all 3 atoms are happy. By sharing 2 pairs of electrons in this situation a double bond has been formed, and double bonds are important in chemical reactions.
Views: 6014 Whats Up Dude
Sigma & pi-bonds in Fluorine,Nitrogen & Oxygen - Dr.Amal K Kumar
 
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A fine detailed animation of the sigma- & pi-bond formations in gaseous diatomic molecules like Hydrogen,Nitrogen,Oxygen & Fluorine are shown to strengthen the conceptual framework of the high school students.
Views: 19621 Dr. Amal K Kumar
Bonds formed by Carbon - CBSE 10
 
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Carbon forms Covalent Bonds with a variety of Elements. But which type of Covalent bond does it form? Is it a Single, a Double or a Triple Covalent Bond? Watch this video to get introduced to the Bond Formations of Carbon. To access all videos related to Chemistry of Carbon compounds for free, visit our website here: https://DontMemorise.com/course/index.php?categoryid=54 Don’t Memorise brings learning to life through its captivating FREE educational videos. To Know More, visit https://DontMemorise.com New videos every week. To stay updated, subscribe to our YouTube channel : http://bit.ly/DontMemoriseYouTube Register on our website to gain access to all videos and quizzes: http://bit.ly/DontMemoriseRegister Subscribe to our Newsletter: http://bit.ly/DontMemoriseNewsLetter Join us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/DontMemoriseFacebook Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/dontmemorise Follow us : http://bit.ly/DontMemoriseBlog
Views: 18579 Don't Memorise
Sigma and Pi Bonds Explained, Basic Introduction, Chemistry
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into sigma and pi bonds. It explains how to calculate the number of sigma and pi bonds in a molecule given its lewis structure. It contains plenty of examples and practice problems. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Molecular Orbital Theory VI: Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
 
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Lesson on how MO theory is used to predict the magnetic properties of certain substances. A substance is paramagnetic (attracted to a magnetic field) if it contains unpaired electrons. A substance is diamagnetic (repelled by a magnetic field) if it lacks unpaired electrons.
Views: 250274 Ben's Chem Videos
Multiple bonds and oxygen atom
 
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This channel is dedicated to students of chemistry, medicine, pharmacy, biology, physics, agriculture and other branches studying chemistry.
Views: 22 Chemistry Channel
Hydrogen Bonding and Common Mistakes
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry Hydrogen bonding can be so confusing, and in this video we talk about some common mistakes. Hydrogen bonds are intermolecular forces between molecules. They form because one atom has a high electronegativity, so it gets a partial negative charge, and the hydrogen gets a partial positive charge.
Views: 582164 Tyler DeWitt
Chem162 Hybridization and Double Bonds (10.5 part 1)
 
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Describes and shows the formation of double bonds using an oxygen molecule in a website simulation and describes the bonding in ethene. The interactive site for the oxygen molecule can be found at http://learning.covcollege.ac.uk/content/Jorum/CHB_Ionic-covalent-bonds-and-compounds_LM1.2-04FEB08/page111.htm The interactive site for the ethene molecule can be found at http://employees.oneonta.edu/viningwj/modules/CI_sigma_pi_bonding_in_ethene.html
Views: 1405 Amy Cully
Polar Molecules Tutorial: How to determine polarity in a molecule
 
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This video looks at how to determine polarity in a molecule by understanding how the bond polarities, molecule shape, and outside atoms influence polarity using bond polarity vector addition. This includes a flow chart that guides you through the various decisions needed to determine if a molecule is polar or not. Wikipedia 1/1/2018: In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment. Polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. A polar molecule with two or more polar bonds must have a geometry which is asymmetric in at least one direction, so that the bond dipoles do not cancel each other. While the molecules can be described as "polar covalent", "nonpolar covalent", or "ionic", this is often a relative term, with one molecule simply being more polar or more nonpolar than another. However, the following properties are typical of such molecules. A molecule is composed of one or more chemical bonds between molecular orbitals of different atoms. A molecule may be polar either as a result of polar bonds due to differences in electronegativity as described above, or as a result of an asymmetric arrangement of nonpolar covalent bonds and non-bonding pairs of electrons known as a full molecular orbital. Polar molecules[edit] The water molecule is made up of oxygen and hydrogen, with respective electronegativities of 3.44 and 2.20. The dipoles from each of the two bonds (red arrows) add together to make the overall molecule polar. A polar molecule has a net dipole as a result of the opposing charges (i.e. having partial positive and partial negative charges) from polar bonds arranged asymmetrically. Water (H2O) is an example of a polar molecule since it has a slight positive charge on one side and a slight negative charge on the other. The dipoles do not cancel out resulting in a net dipole. Due to the polar nature of the water molecule itself, polar molecules are generally able to dissolve in water. Other examples include sugars (like sucrose), which have many polar oxygen–hydrogen (−OH) groups and are overall highly polar. If the bond dipole moments of the molecule do not cancel, the molecule is polar. For example, the water molecule (H2O) contains two polar O−H bonds in a bent (nonlinear) geometry. The bond dipole moments do not cancel, so that the molecule forms a molecular dipole with its negative pole at the oxygen and its positive pole midway between the two hydrogen atoms. In the figure each bond joins the central O atom with a negative charge (red) to an H atom with a positive charge (blue). The hydrogen fluoride, HF, molecule is polar by virtue of polar covalent bonds – in the covalent bond electrons are displaced toward the more electronegative fluorine atom. Ammonia, NH3, molecule the three N−H bonds have only a slight polarity (toward the more electronegative nitrogen atom). The molecule has two lone electrons in an orbital, that points towards the fourth apex of the approximate tetrahedron, (VSEPR). This orbital is not participating in covalent bonding; it is electron-rich, which results in a powerful dipole across the whole ammonia molecule. Resonance Lewis structures of the ozone molecule In ozone (O3) molecules, the two O−O bonds are nonpolar (there is no electronegativity difference between atoms of the same element). However, the distribution of other electrons is uneven – since the central atom has to share electrons with two other atoms, but each of the outer atoms has to share electrons with only one other atom, the central atom is more deprived of electrons than the others (the central atom has a formal charge of +1, while the outer atoms each have a formal charge of −​1⁄2). Since the molecule has a bent geometry, the result is a dipole across the whole ozone molecule. When comparing a polar and nonpolar molecule with similar molar masses, the polar molecule in general has a higher boiling point, because the dipole–dipole interaction between polar molecules results in stronger intermolecular attractions. One common form of polar interaction is the hydrogen bond, which is also known as the H-bond. For example, water forms H-bonds and has a molar mass M = 18 and a boiling point of +100 °C, compared to nonpolar methane with M = 16 and a boiling point of –161 °C. Nonpolar molecules[edit] A molecule may be nonpolar either when there is an equal sharing of electrons between the two atoms of a diatomic molecule or because of the symmetrical arrangement of polar bonds in a more complex molecule. Not every molecule with polar bonds is a polar molecule. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has two polar C=O bonds, but the geometry of CO2 is linear so that the two bond dipole moments cancel and there is no net molecular dipole moment; the molecule is nonpolar.
Views: 181422 Crash Chemistry Academy
Lewis Diagrams Made Easy: How to Draw Lewis Dot Structures
 
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This is a whiteboard animation tutorial on how to draw Lewis diagrams for elements and simple molecules. Please consider supporting me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/ketzbook Lewis diagrams (aka Lewis structures, Lewis dot structures, Lewis dot diagrams) are useful because they use simple drawings to show how atoms share valence electrons in molecules, polyatomic ions, and other covalent structures. This is my first tutorial in the series. Please also see the second video in my Lewis diagram series: https://youtu.be/qwqXAlvNxsU For simple molecules, follow these 5 steps: 1) count all the valence electrons 2) put the singular atom in the middle 3) draw in single bonds 4) put remaining electrons in as lone pairs 5) give every atom an octet or duet by turning lone pairs into double or triple bonds as needed My goal is to make chemistry easier ;) http://ketzbook.com
Views: 1053055 ketzbook
Molecular Orbital Theory
 
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Molecular Orbital Theory explained for CBSE Students
Views: 200827 Soumitra Das
Hydrogen bonding in water | Water, acids, and bases | Biology | Khan Academy
 
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Reactants and products in reversible and irreversible chemical reactions. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/water-acids-and-bases/hydrogen-bonding-in-water/v/hydrogen-bonding-in-water?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/chemistry--of-life/chemical-bonds-and-reactions/v/intermolecular-forces-and-molecular-bonds?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 265974 Khan Academy
How Does Water Bond - Covalent Bonds | Hindi
 
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water special molecule है..इसे बनाने वाले different elements के बीच की bonding इसे special बनाती है. शायद आपको पता ही होगा कि सभी elements की tendency, अपना octate complete करने की होती हैं. इसकी detailed study के लिए आप हमारा ये video देख सकते हैं! water..एक oxygen और दो hydrogen atoms का combination होता है. oxygen की outer shell में 6 electrons होते हैं..यानी इसे अपना octate complete करने के लिए 2 electrons की जरूरत होती है. वहीँ hydrogen की outer shell में एक electron होता है..और इसे valence shell full करने के लिए एक extra electron की जरूरत होती है! ये दोनों atoms अपना octate complete करने के लिए आपस में electrons की sharing करके covalent bonds बनाते हैं. hydrogen और oxygen के बीच इस तरह की bonding होने से हमें water molecule मिलता है! electrons की sharing से बनने वाले covalent bonds को हम इस तरह straight line से represent कर सकते हैं..लेकिन वास्तव में water molecule को हम इस तरह draw नहीं करते! इसकी actual geometry ये है. water की ऐसी geometry, oxygen के loan pairs के कारण होती है. ये unshared loan paires..bonding pairs को repell करते हैं. जिससे oxygen atoms नीचे की तरफ shift हो जाते हैं. The video is a contextualized and translated version (suitable for Indian audiences) of the original video (linked below). The original license allows the use of this video under CC-BY-NC domain of creative commons community. Hindi Script: Atul kumar Mishra Voiceover: Gopesh Kaushik Editor (Script and video): Team Learn India Learn LIL website: https://www.learnindialearn.com Original Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mpsZwgCnHM
Views: 761 Learn India Learn
Ionic Bonds - Potassium and Oxygen
 
02:56
Turn on cc (subtitles) to see exactly what we are saying if the audio is not clear. Presented by: Ryan Bell Aidan Galbreath Irene Lee Sidney Medina Chemistry Period 6 - ESHS ~ Mr. Fotis
Views: 4474 icegliderlee
Chemistry Tutorial: How to Balance Chemical Equations?
 
09:36
This chemistry tutorial video shows five steps to balance chemical equations. It uses the examples of three combustion chemical reactions- the burning of hydrogen, the burning of carbon and the burning of methane in oxygen. A challenge is also set to balance the equation for the combustion of propane, with clues given to help solve the challenge. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript: Let's try a different chemical reaction. Methane gas also explodes in oxygen gas, and you can see if we put one CH4 molecule and one O2 molecule into a box, we end up with two H2O molecules, but one C atom is left on its own with unused bonds. Let's put another O2 molecule in at the beginning. Boom! Yes, that's better, we now have product molecules with no unused bonds left over. Could we work these numbers out in advance without having to do the explosion? Methane is a compound that contains both hydrogen and carbon atoms. When the molecules bust apart, both the hydrogen and the carbon atoms get attached to oxygen atoms, to form new molecules. We know that when hydrogen bonds to oxygen, we get H2O, water. But what about when carbon attaches to oxygen? What is the molecules that we end up with then? If we bond one oxygen to one carbon, we can see that a double bond could form between carbon and oxygen atoms. But carbon still has 2 unused bonds, so we need another oxygen atom. We end up with the formula CO2, carbon dioxide. Whenever oxygen reacts with carbon, or compounds containing carbon, CO2 is the usual product. You can remember that. Let's write then balance the equation. First we can write the names of the reactants, methane and oxygen. Then we can write the names of the products, water and carbon dioxide. Then convert the names into formulas. Some formulas you will already know, and others you might be able to work out using the bonding rules. Methane is CH4, oxygen gas is O2, water is H2O and carbon dioxide is CO2. Carbon is already balanced, but hydrogen and oxygen are not. There are 4 H atoms on the LHS and only 2 on the RHS. What to do? We can double the number of H2O molecules
Views: 26702 AtomicSchool
Bonding and Antibonding Molecular Orbitals
 
07:46
Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/bonding-and-antibonding-molecular-orbitals Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 173107 AK LECTURES
Hydrogen Bonds In Water Explained - Intermolecular Forces
 
10:54
This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding occurs in molecules when hydrogen is attached to highly electronegative small atoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. Hydrogen bonds are very strong dipole dipole interactions. Molecules that contain hydrogen bonds such as water are very polar. Hydrogen bonds is one of the strongest types of intermolecular forces. This video contains a few examples and illustrations of hydrogen bonds in water and in HF. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Chemical Bonding looks at the double covalent bond forming in Oxygen.
 
00:31
Highly Recommended - Top Tutors for All Subjects at All Levels here: https://spires.co/franklychemistry This brief flash video outlines what happens when two oxygen atoms form a molecule with a double covalent bond.
Views: 2634 FranklyChemistry
Valence Bond Theory, Hybrid Orbitals, and Molecular Orbital Theory
 
07:54
Attention! This video about molecular orbitals is much better: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I2k61JMk71M Alright, let's be real. Nobody understands molecular orbitals when they first take chemistry. You just pretend you do, and then in your next course you learn them a little better. And then a little better than that. And five years later you sort of understand them. So don't get discouraged! Just watch this for a head start and do your best. To support this channel and keep up on STEM news at the same time, click on the link below and subscribe to this FREE newsletter: http://www.jdoqocy.com/click-9021241-13591026 Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Views: 605553 Professor Dave Explains
Double and Triple  Covalent Bonds
 
02:52
Learn how electrons are formed in a double and triple bond.
Views: 40604 The Science Classroom
Hydrogen bonds in Water Molecules
 
01:06
- 💧Water molecules bind to one another by hydrogen bonds 💧The hydrogen is attached to an electronegative atom (oxygen) and an electronegative atom (oxygen) of a different water molecule 💧Usually the electronegative atom is partial charge 💧The hydrogen then has the partial positive charge 💧Besides water, H-bond also function to stabilize other 3-D structures such as DNA, RNA and proteins . Prepared by: 💚 Nur Shaheera Izzati 💜 Farahin Nurawanis . Credits to The Amoeba Sisters . Original video: https://youtu.be/3jwAGWky98c
Views: 297 DNAwesome UiTM Arau
Double and Triple Bonds
 
13:08
This video shows chemical bonds inside human body respiration & breathing. Oxygen atoms can form double bonds, and nitrogen atoms can form triple bonds to make diatomic gaseous molecules. But carbon atoms can't form a quadruple bonds, instead bonding to make a network solid. The role of O2, N2 and CO2 in breathing and respiration is explored, and more complex molecules are introduced. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript: The thought experiments from our last video showed that hydrogen atoms can make only one bond, oxygen atoms can make 2, nitrogen three and carbon 4 bonds with other atoms. This number of bonds that an atom can make is called its valency. Hydrogen has a valency of 1, oxygen 2, nitrogen 3 and carbon 4. In our next thought experiment, we'll put lots of oxygen atoms in a box. But no hydrogen atoms this time. Like hydrogen, oxygen atoms stick together in pairs. 3.1 When another oxygen atom hits this pair, it doesn’t stick. HC? How come? Don’t oxygen atoms like to bond to two other atoms? If it bond with hydrogen, which has only one bond, it will need two of them, and the new molecule will be H2O, water. But when it bonds with another oxygen, it has one bond left over. The other oxygen does too. If hydrogen atoms were available they could join with these bonds to make a complete molecule. But if there aren't any spare hydrogen atoms floating about, can you see another solution? The oxygens can bond to each other a second time. The 2 oxygens then form a double bond between them. Now both oxygen atoms are using both of their bonds, and are satisfying their valency of 2. The stick diagram for this molecule shows the 2 oxygen atoms joined by the double bond. The chemical formula for this molecule is O2. The 2 is showing us that there are 2 oxygen atoms in the molecule, not that there are 2 bonds between the atoms. That's just a coincidence. Oxygen is a colourless gas, and about 20% of the air is made of O2 molecules. When we breathe in, our bodies can absorb them into our blood steam and keep us alive.
Views: 70856 AtomicSchool
Lewis Structures, Introduction, Formal Charge, Molecular Geometry, Resonance, Polar or Nonpolar
 
02:13:38
This chemistry video tutorial explains how to draw lewis structures of molecules and the lewis dot diagram of polyatomic ions. It shows you how to calculate the formal charge, how to draw the resonance form of the lewis structure and how to determine the hybridization of the central atom. It also discusses molecular geometry / vsepr and the bond angles that are found in common molecules as well as if the molecule is polar or nonpolar. This video contains plenty of formulas, notes, examples, and practice problems that will help you on your next worksheet assignment or upcoming quiz. This video contains all the answers / solutions to the problems posted. General Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BV-uX6wXQgyqZXvRd0tUUV0&index=3 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Here is a list of topics: 1. How to draw the Lewis structure of a molecule or compound 2. Valence Electrons of Common Elements - Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Fluorine 3. Number of Bonds Elements Prefer to Form 4. Lone Pairs, Bonding Electrons, and Nonbonding Electrons 5. Octet Rule - Expanded Octet vs Incomplete Octet 6. Lewis Dot Structure of Diatomic Molecules / Elements - F2, O2, N2, and H2 7. Lewis Dot Diagram - BH3 - Incomplete Octet 8. Molecular Geometry of BH3 - Trigonal Planar - Bond Angle 120 Degrees 9. Formal Charge Calculations - Equation / Formula 10. Formal Charge = Valence Electrons - (Bonds + Dots) 11. How to determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar 12. Polar vs Nonpolar Covalent Bonds - Electronegativity Difference 13. Lewis Structures of H2O, H3O+, and OH- With Formal Charge Calculation 14. Why is CO2 Nonpolar When CO is Polar 15. Lewis Structure For CO2 and CO 16. CO2 - Linear Molecular Geometry, 180 Bond Angle 17. Hybridization - s, sp, sp2, sp3, dsp3 or sp3d, d^2sp3 or sp3d2 18. Lewis Structure For CH4 - Tetrahedral Molecular Geometry - Bond Angle of 109.5 Plus Hybridization 19. Lewis Dot Structure For NH3 - Trigonal Pyramidal - Bond Angle of 107, Sp3 Hybridized. 20. Lewis Structure For H2S - Bent Molecular Geometry and Tetrahedral Electron Pair Geometry 21. Molecular Geometry vs Electron Pair Geometry 22. Lewis Structure For SF6 - Octahedral Molecular Geometry, 90 Bond Angle, Sp3d2 Hybridized, Nonpolar 23. Lewis Structure For PCl5 - Polar or Nonpolar? 24. Lewis Structure For SF4, I3-, XeF4, IF5 - Multiple of 8 technique 25. How To Determine The Number of Lone Pairs on the Central Element 26. Lewis Structure For SOF2, POCl3, SO2Cl2, XeOF2 - Multiple Elements in a molecule - How to determine which element goes in the middle 27. Lewis Dot Diagrams With Resonance - CO3 2-, NO2-, BF3, and NO3- Lewis Structure 28. Polyatomic Ions - Lewis Structure For SO4 2-, PO4 3-, ClO4-, ClO3-, ClO2-, and ClO- 29. Lewis Structures With Radicals - Odd Number of Electrons - NO2 and NO Lewis Structure 30. Lewis Structures - Organic Molecules - Organic Chemistry - Functional Groups 31. Lewis Structure For C2H6 Ethane, C2H4 Ethene, C2H2 Acetylene or Ethyne - Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes 32. Lewis Structure For CH3OH - Methanol - Alcohol Functional Group 33. Lewis Structure For CH3CHO - Ethanal - Aldehyde / Carbonyl 34. Lewis Structure For CH3COOH - Ethanoic Acid or Acetic Acid Found In Vinegar - Carboxylic Acid Functional Group 35. CH3COCH3 Lewis Structure - Acetone or Propanone - Ketone 36. Lewis Structure For CH3OCH3 - Dimethyl Ether 37. Lewis Structure For CH3CO2CH3 - Ester 38. Lewis Structure For CH3CH2NH2 - Ethyl Amine 39. Lewis Structure For CH3CONH2 - Ethanamide - Amide Functional Group 40. Lewis Structure For CH3CN - Nitrile
Online Chemistry Course: Chemical Bonding
 
13:01
This online chemistry course video explains chemical bonding. Watch how two hydrogen atoms collide and stick together to make a molecule. See how they collide and chemically bond with oxygen to form water, with nitrogen to form ammonia, and with carbon to form methane. The chemical formula of these substances are explained, and the connection between the microscopic molecules that make up a substance and its macroscopic properties is shown. Also, the difference between an element and a compound is explained. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students. We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript:
Views: 31985 AtomicSchool
MO Diagram for N2+ (Molecular Orbital)
 
05:20
There are two MO diagrams you need to memorize for diatoms (N2, O2, Ne2, etc). One is for the elements up to Nitrogen. The other is for AFTER nitrogen (starting at oxygen). Then, just fill the orbitals with electrons as per usual. Check me out: http://www.chemistnate.com
Views: 410317 chemistNATE
How Many Bonds Oxygen Can Make?
 
01:02
In the next figure are two atoms of oxygen that covalent bonding is sharing one or more electron pairs. 13 apr 2017 you can usually see trivalent oxygen in intermediates of reactions, because you can protonate a bivalent oxygen to make it trivalent, and then cleave one of the original two bonds to leave yourself with new molecules. Double bonds between sulfur and oxygen or carbon atoms can be found in compounds will form as many covalent it takes to fill their valence shell. How to (this method works for the full valence shell oxygen is 8 and number of electrons in bonds 4. How can oxygen have three bonds? Chemistry stack exchange. Internal c o bonds are found in positively charged oxonium ions. In many covalent bonding situations, multiple chemical bonds exist more than one electron pair is shared. Can oxygen have three bonds? Chemistry stack exchange. Each of shell number one can only hold 2 electrons, two 8, and for the first eighteen elements three a maximum eight electrons carbon oxygen form terminal double bonds in functional groups collectively known as carbonyl compounds to which belong such ketones, esters, carboxylic acids many more. In hydrogen and the other diatomic molecules, only one electron pair is shared. How many covalent bonds can hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon molecular cell biology ncbi bookshelf. However, trace amounts of many metal elements are essential for healthy growth. In the depiction on right are two h's connected by a line. Iron, copper, sodium magnesium) or non metals (e. This can be worked by looking at the group atom is in. Since an oxygen atom has six valence electrons and wants eight, it uses they can be metals (e. How many bonds oxygen can make? Youtube. Three bonds boron is in group 3a. Bond counting predicting numbers of bonds. How can oxygen have three bonds? Chemistry stack exchange chemistry. That being said, to achieve stability atoms should have a full outer shell of 8 bound electrons however, an atom oxygen usually forms only two covalent bonds, as in molecular oxygen, o 2 primarily because its outermost orbital is larger than that sulfur can form few hydrogen sulfide (h s), or many six, trioxide (so 3 ) sulfuric acid so 4. Stackexchange how can oxygen have three bonds "imx0m" url? Q webcache. In the next take a look at picture below. It has three valence electrons atoms seek stabilityso the amount of covalent bonds formed between non metal elements will be aimed at gaining more stability i. Oxygen has 2, carbon 4 and hydrogen 1 so these are the max number of single covalent bonds they can form here combinations with boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen fluorine. Trivalent hydrogen and chlorine can each form one covalent bond, oxygen two bonds, nitrogen three, while carbon four bonds 25 aug 2017. Oxygen can be combined with various cations to form a large number of ionically bonded solids as result, it is harder for sulfur atoms come close enough together bonds. This leads to predictable numbers of
Views: 561 Aile Aile
Water - Liquid Awesome: Crash Course Biology #2
 
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Hank teaches us why water is one of the most fascinating and important substances in the universe. Follow SciShow on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Like SciShow on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Review: Re-watch = 00:00 Introduction = 00:42 Molecular structure & hydrogen bonds = 01:38 Cohesion & surface tension = 02:46 Adhesion = 03:31 Hydrophilic substances = 04:42 Hydrophobic substances = 05:14 Henry Cavendish = 05:49 Ice Density = 07:45 Heat Capacity = 09:10 Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dftba.com/product/1av/CrashCourse-Biology-The-Complete-Series-DVD-Set Citations: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/youthdevelopment/components/0328-02.html http://www.uni.edu/~iowawet/H2OProperties.html http://www.hometrainingtools.com/properties-water-science-teaching-tip/a/1274/ http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/h2o7.htm http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/science/chemistry/biography/cavendish.htm http://chemistry.mtu.edu/~pcharles/SCIHISTORY/HenryCavendish.html http://www.nndb.com/people/030/000083778/ http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ca-Ch/Cavendish-Henry.html TAGS: water, hydrogen, oxygen, molecule, covalent bond, cohesion, adhesion, polarity, hydrogen bond, surface tension, capillary action, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, ionic bond, ion, universal solvent, henry cavendish, chemistry, specific gravity, density, heat capacity, evaporation, biology, crashcourse, crash course, hank green Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 3203992 CrashCourse
CHEMISTRY 101: Molecular Orbital Theory, Bond order, bond strength, magnetic properties
 
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In this example problem, we show how to fill a molecular orbital diagram for a diatomic molecule and use molecular bond theory to compare bond order, bond strength, and magnetic properties (paramagnetic or diamagnetic). Use molecular orbital theory to determine: a.) the bond order of N2 b.) whether N2 is paramagnetic or diamagnetic c.) order of increasing bond strength for N2, N22-, N2+
Views: 255559 Matthew Gerner
Chemical Bonds(Covalent) in Hydrogen,Nitrogen,Oxygen &Fluorine-Dr.Amal K Kumar
 
05:30
This is an Chemical Edutainment video.The animation in this video is designed to assist school students to learn chemistry easily through entertainment. I imposed the background song ( Indian classic 'Desh rag' ) to create an attention catching effect.
Views: 1040 Dr. Amal K Kumar
Polar & Non-Polar Molecules: Crash Course Chemistry #23
 
10:46
*** PLEASE WATCH WITH ANNOTATIONS ON! SOME INACCURACIES IN GRAPHICS ARE NOTED AND CORRECTED IN ANNOTATIONS. THANKS! *** Molecules come in infinite varieties, so in order to help the complicated chemical world make a little more sense, we classify and categorize them. One of the most important of those classifications is whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, which describes a kind of symmetry - not just of the molecule, but of the charge. In this edition of Crash Course Chemistry, Hank comes out for Team Polar, and describes why these molecules are so interesting to him. You'll learn that molecules need to have both charge asymmetry and geometric asymmetry to be polar, and that charge asymmetry is caused by a difference in electronegativities. You'll also learn how to notate a dipole moment (or charge separation) of a molecule, the physical mechanism behind like dissolves like, and why water is so dang good at fostering life on Earth. -- Table of Contents Charge Assymetry & Geometric Asymmetry 01:33 Difference in Electronegatives 01:49 Hank is Team Polar 00:33 Dipole Moment 03:49 Charge Separation of a Molecule 04:12 Like Dissolves Like 04:41 Water is Awesome 05:10 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 2511010 CrashCourse
Valence Bond Theory. N2 diagram
 
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12-4 This video describes the valence bond theory diagram of the N2 molecule, where the concept of sigma and pi overlaps is laid out. The video finishes with an introduction for the need of hybridization.
Views: 2975 Diego Troya
Types of Hydrogen Bonds | Intermolecular and Intramolecular Bonding
 
03:52
There are two different types of hydrogen bonds. They are Intermolecular bonding and Intramolecular bonding. i) Intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This type of bond is formed between the two molecules of the same or different compounds. Some examples of the compounds exhibiting intermolecular hydrogen bonds are : Hydrogen fluoride and water. 1. Hydrogen fluoride, H F. In the solid state, hydrogen fluoride consists of long zig-zag chains of molecules associated by hydrogen bonds as shown in the figure. Therefore, hydrogen fluoride is represented as HFN. 2. Water In water molecule, the electronegative oxygen atom forms two polar covalent bonds with two hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atom due to its higher electronegativity acquires partial negative charge and the two hydrogen atoms acquire partial positive charge. The negatively charged oxygen forms two hydrogen bonds with two positively charged hydrogen atoms of two neighbouring molecules. Each oxygen atom is tetrahedrally surrounded by four hydrogen atoms as shown in visual. Hydrogen bonding in water results in a hydrogen bridge (HOH) network extending in three dimensions and the associated water molecule may be expressed as H Two O N. ii) Intramolecular hydrogen bonding. This type of bond is formed between hydrogen atom and Nitrogen, Oxygen or Flurine atom of the same molecule. This type of hydrogen bonding is commonly called chelation and is more frequently found in organic compounds. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is possible when a six or five membered rings can be formed. Importance of H-bonding i) Life would have been impossible without liquid water which is the result of intermolecular H-bonding in it. ii) Hydrogen bonding increase the rigidity and strength of wood fibres and thus makes it an article of great utility to meet requirements of housing, furniture, etc. iii) The cotton, silk or synthetic fibres also own their rigidity and tensile strength to hydrogen bonding. iv) Most of our food materials such as carbohydrates and proteins also consist of hydrogen bonding. v) Hydrogen bonding also exists in various tissues, organs, skin, blood and bones.
Views: 3167 Easy Tips 4 Learner
The Oxygen Molecule
 
00:31
Created with Sock Puppets for iPhone and iPad.
Covalent vs. Ionic bonds
 
12:23
This quick video explains: 1) How to determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons that an atom will comtain. 2) The characteristics of covalent bonds 3) The characteristics of ionic bonds Teachers: You can purchase this PowerPoint from my online store for only $3. The link below will take you to the store. https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Covalent-vs-Ionic-Bonds-PowerPoint-2340207 - Atom - Element - Proton - Neutron - Electron - Atomic number - Atomic mass - Covalent - Ionic - O2 - Salt - Sodium chloride
Views: 421738 Beverly Biology
VSEPR Theory and Molecular Geometry
 
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Did you know that geometry was invented by molecules? It's true! Until the first stars went supernova and littered all the elements across the cosmos, everything was simply spheres, from protons to stars. But then, under cooler planetary conditions, atoms came together to form molecules, and in doing so, they created the first shapes the universe had ever seen. Learn about the different shapes that molecules can make! To support this channel and keep up on STEM news at the same time, click on the link below and subscribe to this FREE newsletter: http://www.jdoqocy.com/click-9021241-13591026 Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Views: 409936 Professor Dave Explains
Bond Strength and Bond Length
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into bond strength and bond length of single bonds, double bonds, and triple bonds. It also discusses the relative strength of sigma bonds and pi bonds. Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEWpbFLzoYGPfuWUMFPSaoA?sub_confirmation=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ New Organic Chemistry Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6unef5Hz6SU&index=1&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BXP7TUO7656wg0uF1xYnwgm&t=0s
Oxygen Molecule made with Cinema 4D and Xpresso
 
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Oxygen Molecule made with Cinema 4D and Xpresso to stick tags to primitives
Views: 269 TC Taylor
How to Draw Skeletal Structure or Bond-Line Notation for Organic Molecules
 
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http://leah4sci.com/skeletal presents: How to Draw Skeletal Structures for Organic Compounds Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ This video shows you how to draw complex organic chemistry molecules in simple skeletal structure or bond-line notation. You'll also learn how to read and understand molecules when written as a bunch of lines and atoms. Want more practice drawing skeletal structures? Try the skeletal practice quiz on my website: http://leah4sci.com/skeletal For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Google+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
Views: 142099 Leah4sci
Turning CO2 into oxygen: Scientists change carbon dioxide to ethanol using the sun - TomoNews
 
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BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA — Scientists at the Berkeley Lab in California have developed technology that can convert carbon dioxide into ethanol using sunlight. The research was published in the journal, Energy & Environmental Science. The study employed low amounts of solar energy in a copper-silver nanocoral cathode to produce the ethanol. "Reducing CO2 to a hydrocarbon end product like ethanol or ethylene can take up to 5 volts, start to finish," explained the study's lead author Gurudayal in a Berkeley Lab news release. "Our system reduced that by half while maintaining the selectivity of products." ----------------------------------------­--------------------- TomoNews is your best source for real news. We cover the funniest, craziest and most talked-about stories on the internet. Our tone is irreverent and unapologetic. If you’re laughing, we’re laughing. If you’re outraged, we’re outraged. We tell it like it is. And because we can animate stories, TomoNews brings you news like you’ve never seen before. Visit our official website for all the latest, uncensored videos: http://us.tomonews.com Check out our Android app: http://bit.ly/1rddhCj Check out our iOS app: http://bit.ly/1gO3z1f Get top stories delivered to your inbox everyday: http://bit.ly/tomo-newsletter Stay connected with us here: Facebook http://www.facebook.com/TomoNewsUS Twitter @tomonewsus http://www.twitter.com/TomoNewsUS Google+ http://plus.google.com/+TomoNewsUS/ Instagram @tomonewsus http://instagram.com/tomonewsus
Views: 54064 TomoNews US
Sp2 hybridization | Chemical bonds | Chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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Sp2 hybrid orbitals and properties of pi bonds. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds/copy-of-covalent-bonds/v/sp-hybridization-jay-final?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds/copy-of-covalent-bonds/v/steric-number-sp3-hybridization?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
sp3, sp2, sp Hybridization and Bond Angles - Organic Chemistry Made Simple
 
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In this video we talk about the concept of hybridization and practice with example problems that may appear on your exams. EDIT: Mistake on my part, Carbon Monoxide should have a triple bond. ANSWER: Oxygen in H2O is sp3 hybridized. 2 lone pairs + 2 atoms
Views: 90291 Ferdous Nipu
Sigma and Pi Bonds: Hybridization Explained!
 
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Sigma bonds are the FIRST bonds to be made between two atoms. They are made from hybridized orbitals. Pi bonds are the SECOND and THIRD bonds to be made. They are made from leftover "p" orbitals. Check me out: http://www.chemistnate.com
Views: 1361094 chemistNATE
Polar Bonds and Molecules
 
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Learn about what makes polar bonds polar and how intermolecular forces like hydrogen bonding occur.
Views: 46639 Teacher's Pet