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Lecture - James Hoffmeier & Stephen Moshier

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Lecture by James Hoffmeier and Stephen Moshier "Moses Did Not Sleep Here! A Critical Look at Sensation Exodus and Mt Sinai Theories" Given on Saturday January 18, 2014 James K. Hoffmeier Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Old Testament at Trinity International University, Divinity School (Deerfield, IL), was born in Egypt where he lived until age 16. Hoffmeier graduated from Wheaton College with a BA in Near Eastern Studies and Archaeology. Graduate studies took him to the University of Toronto where he received his MA in 1975. In 1980 he returned to Wheaton College as assistant professor and he completed his Ph.D. from the University of Toronto in 1982 in Ancient Near Eastern Religions. He remained on the faculty at Wheaton until 1999. For five years he served as Chair of the Department of Biblical and Archaeology Studies. He has been on the faculty of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School since 1999. Dr. Hoffmeier directed excavations at Tell el-Borg between 1999 and 2008. Hoffmeier authored Israel in Egypt: Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition (Oxford University Press, 1997 & 1999), Ancient Israel in Sinai: Evidence for the Authenticity of the Old Testament Historiography in its Near Eastern Context (Eisenbrauns, 1994, paperback 2010) and The Future of Biblical Archaeology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004), The Archaeology of the Bible (Oxford: Lion Hudson, 2008), now in German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Romanian and Norwegian. He is the author of Immigration, Immigrants and the Bible (Crossway, 2009) and Do Historical Matters Matter to Faith (Crossway, 2012). Stephen O. Moshier Professor of Geology at Wheaton College, Illinois, and serves as Chair of the Department of Geology and Environmental Science and Director of the Wheaton College Science Station. He was born and raised in Corning, New York and studied geology at Virginia Tech (BS, 1977), SUNY Binghamton (MA, 1980) and Louisiana State University (PhD, 1987). Previous professional experience included working in the petroleum industry with Mobil and AMOCO and a faculty position at the University of Kentucky. Moshiers teaching responsibilities cover areas of general geology, earth history, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, biogeology, and geoarchaeology. Prior to 2000 his professional interests were focused on ancient carbonates and petroleum geology. From 1998 to 2007 he served as team geologist for the Tell el-Borg excavation in the NW Sinai, Egypt and in 2008 he joined the Harvard University - Leon Levy Expedition to Ashkelon, Israel. He is a member of several professional societies and past president of the Kentucky Geological Society. Moshier has contributed articles to the American Assoc. Petroleum Geology Bulletin, Sedimentology, Journal of Sedimentary Research, SEPM Core Workshops, Geological Society of America Bulletin, Geological Society of London, Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, and Books and Culture Magazine.
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Text Comments (16)
syedali1000 (14 days ago)
Not very scholarly. Continually pushing his books. In final question at end , What language did Moses speak? Mr Hoffmeier basically leaves it at Hebrew, when anyone with common sense would know that, Moses, being a Prince of Egypt, would have spoken Egyptian fluently (as well as Hebrew).
Bill Conger (1 month ago)
You can poke holes in all the theories about the exodus but.. I find the arguments in this video to be weak. A WALL of water to the left a WALL of water to the right.. this guy thinks that happened in a pond of two feet deep water..
Walter R. Mattfeld (8 months ago)
Hoffmeier notes that the Bible has the Red Sea, Hebrew Yam Suph, being reached in 3 days: Day 1 Ramesses to Succoth; Day 2 Succoth to Etham; Day 3 Etham, turn about from, to the Red Sea. He notes a man can walk about 24 miles a day, or 2 miles an hour, for 12 hours. However, he neglects to mention that Israel had herds of cattle, sheep, and goats accompanying her and these animals move at a slower pace. Bedouin shepherds in the Sinai do not drive their goats over over 8/12 miles a day. This would place Yam Suph as roughly 24 to 36 miles east of Ramesses instead of 60 miles east of Ramesses. The problem of a Red Sea crossing at the Gulf of Aqabah and the Nuweibah beach as proposed by Ron Wyatt, Bob Cornuke, Lennart Moeller, and others, is that it is several hundred miles from Ramesses and cannot be reached in 3 days' time by Israel and her herds of cattle, sheep and goats. Not known by many, and not mentioned by Hoffmeier, is that the Hebrew word YAM can mean not only SEA but LAKE as well. For Example the Dead SEA is a LAKE, the SEA of Galilee is another LAKE. So Yam Suph could be a LAKE and not neccesarily a Sea. Suph in Hebrew can mean "reed," but it can also mean "terminate" or "end." God tells Moses he wants Israel brought out of Egypt to worship him at Mount Sinai. When Moses confronts Pharaoh he tells him of God's wish, and that he will need three days to get Israel into the wilderness to worship God. This implies Mt. Sinai is 3 days from Ramesses? Or that Moses wants a 3 day head start on an Egyptian army attempting to overtake him and bring him back to Egypt? From the Exodus itinerary it is clear that Mt. Sinai is further from Ramesses than a 3 day journey into the wilderness. In any event, it is IMPOSSIBLE that the Red Sea crossing is at Nuweibah Beach and the Gulf of Aqaba as it hundreds of miles from Ramesses and way beyond the three days Israel traveled with her herds.
Pragm Aticamente (5 months ago)
+Walter R. Mattfeld Interesting. "The Dividing Waters" and the "The Way to the land of the Philistines" are a real clues. Thanks a lot.
Walter R. Mattfeld (5 months ago)
+Pragm Aticamente Agreed that Yam Suph can also be translated as Reed Sea or Reed Lake. Agreed that the gulf of Aqabah is called Yam Suph. However, the time and mileage constraints require there be THREE Yam Suphs. (1) Lake Menzallah or Ballah, east of San el Hagar (biblical Zoan), where God dumped the Egyptian locusts. (2) The Gulf of Suez is the second Yam Suph, after camping at Elim and its 12 springs and palm trees (today's Ayun Musa and its 12 artesian springs and palm trees), and the 3rd Yam Suph is the Gulf of Aqabah where is Edom and Ezion Geber (all three Yam Suphs being noted by Egyptologists Kenneth A. Kitchen and Eric K. Hoffmeier in their biblical research). For an east wind to blow away a yam suph (technically called "wind set-down"), the water must be shallow (Aqabah's Gulf is too deep, over 200-400 feet deep). This, however, works at lakes Menzalleh and Ballah as their water depth is usually only 4 feet, rising to 7 feet when the Nile is at Flood stage (Menzalleh and Ballah getting their water from the Nile on maps made before the Suez Canal was built (pre-1860 maps). In January of 1882 a powerful east wind arose near the entrance to the Suez Canal at Port Said. It blew all afternoon and all night, in the morning the shallow water of Lake Menzalleh (4 feet depth) had been blown away, as far as the eye could see, exposing the lake's bottom covered in reeds and marsh grasses. This event was noted by a British General, Sir Alexander Tulloch, who was inspecting the canal at that time. Pre-1860 Suez Canal maps reveal that Lake Ballah was filled with Nile water via a narrow inlet from Lake Menzalleh. This inlet also served as a ford for Egyptian chariots who crossed this shallow lake at time of low water (4 feet). At time of high water (7 feet) the ford could not be crossed by chariots. The Egyptians called this ford Ta Denit "The Dividing Water," perhaps an allusion to the Yam Suph's waters being divided by powerful east winds? This track, from Ramesses, Egypt to Gaza, in Canaan, was known to the Egyptians as the Way of Horus, the Bible called it the Way to the land of the Philistines. Today this crossing no longer exists, it has been filled in by the Suez Canal, it is in the area of el Qantara on modern maps of Egypt. That is to say, Israel probably crossed the Reed Sea/Lake, or Yam-Suph, at the Ballah-Menzalleh inlet/ford on her way out of Egypt.
Pragm Aticamente (5 months ago)
Yam Suph means "Sea of Reeds" and not "Red Sea".. js In Jewish sources, 1 Kings 9:26 yam suph is translated as "Sea of Reeds" ("near Eloth" "in the land of Edom").
Paul Beduhn (1 year ago)
Yes it is an allegory, but ancient people used real life geographical anchors in their fiction, because they had to set the picture. Is Hagar fictional? No And where is this first century map?
Paul Beduhn (1 year ago)
Some geographic indicators in scripture of the Exodus crossing and the mountain of God. Exodus 3:1 Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian [Arabia]: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb. :12 ...When thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain. --Logically Moses would bring the children of Israel back to the very same mountain, 50 days after passover (Pentecost), when God spoke and gave his laws to the children of Israel. It would not have taken them 50 days to cross the Red Sea at Suez and travel to the traditional site of the mountain of God. 13:17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that *God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near*; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt: --Logically this verse would be irrelevant if the mountain of God was south in the traditional site in the Sinai peninsula, but we know that there are no idle words in scripture. There would be no need for this verse, because it couldn't apply in the context of the traditional site, because it would have taken them the other way. --The LORD lead the Exodus to His mountain to give them His law. :18 But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: *and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt*. 14:11 And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth *out of Egypt*? (If the crossing of the Red Sea was at the traditional site at the Gulf of Suez, then that would make Moses a lier, because we have verses telling us that God lead them *out of Egypt* and they still would have been in Egypt if the crossing site was at the traditional site in the Gulf of Suez). :2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea. (Pihahiroth in Hebrew means mouth of the gorge, there are no such geographical indicators of this west of the Gulf of Suez and certainly not in the Nile delta.) Numbers 10:12 And the children of Israel took their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran. :33 (Retro Exodus; their departure from Mt. Horeb.) And they departed from the mount of the LORD *three days*' journey: and the ark of the covenant of the LORD went before them in the *three days*' journey, to search out a resting place for them. (You can not get to mount Paran in Arabia in three days, from the traditional site in the Sinai Peninsula.) --The Gulf of Aqaba was also known as 'the sea of reeds' just to muddy the waters some more. And king Solomon made a navy of ships in Eziongeber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red sea [yâm sûph], in the land of Edom. {1Kings 9:26} Deuteronomy 33:2 And he said, The LORD came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir (from the North point A) unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran South from Seir, point B), and he came (to mount Horeb, South of Paran, point C, from the North) with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them. (Seir/Edom, and mount Paran is Northeast from the traditional site in the Sinai peninsula, and not on a North and South azimuth.) Galatians 4:25 *For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia*, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. (Paul knew where the mountain of God was in his day. The wildreness of the Read Sea/Sinai was not called Arabia, before the second century AD; after Flavius Josephus). --My military education tells me that only a bad general would have camped so close to their enemy. Moses was a prince of Egypt growing up and would have had the highest education on military tactics (and the whole spectrum of education) of his time. The Egyptians had minning industries all along the western edge of the mountains on the east side of the Gulf of Suez and controlled most of modern day Sinai. Your presupposition are that the crossing must be made after three days and I do not think that this presupposition is supported by the scriptures, but even still it took fifty days before the exodus of peoples reach the mountain of God.
Walter R. Mattfeld (1 year ago)
Doctor James Hoffmeier (PhD) conludes, after a lengthly investigation, that Mt. Sinai is most probably not Gebel el Lawz in Midian (Saudi Arabia), but more likely somewhere in the Sinai. He also noted that no site proposed for Mt. Sinai has the archaeological evidence demanded by scholars for an Exodus circa 1445 BC (Early Exodus) or 1260 BC (Late Exodus), such as on-site ancient inscriptions stating that the location is called Mt. Sinai (see 7:16-7:30 of the video). Another acceptable form of archaeological evidence, not mentioned by Hoffmeier, would be of camp sites possessing shattered pottery of the period, either circa 1445 BC or 1260 BC. Surprising, for me, is that Hoffmeier is apparently UNAWARE that such a site in the southern Sinai does exist which has the pottery evidence for circa 1445 BC as well as circa 1260 BC, it is in the vicinity of Gebal Serabit el Khadim (which has been proposed as a Mt. Sinai site) and the Egyptian mining camps near the shrine dedicated to an Egyptian mining goddess called Hat-Hor "House of Hor," a sky-cow goddess. In Egyptian myth she gave birth to the sun as bull-calf (she was assimilated to another cow-goddess, Nut) at On (Greek: Heliopolis), Egypt. In tomb art this bull-calf appears between two sycamore trees at sun rise. Old Kingdom Pyramid texts have a deceased Pharaoh asking to be allowed on a small boat, with Hor the Hawk god, in the form of a golden bull-calf, to travel across the sky daily as the sun-orb. Tomb art shows a golden calf on the solar bark with a pole star hovering over its back and a seated man with the head of a hawk (Hor, Greek: Horus). Aaron declared that the golden calf lead Israel to Mt. Sinai (Exodus 32:5). Israel, heading for the southern Sinai from Egypt, to Mt. Sinai, would follow the sun as it rose in the east at daybreak, and follow it southeasterly to Gebal Serabit el Khadim and the shrine of Hat Hor. Hat Hor bore an Egyptian epiteth, NUBT, meaning: "the golden one" and in art she is sometimes portrayed as a cow goddess with a golden body. At dawn and at sunset the sky sometimes takes on a golden hue and as Hat-Hor the sky-cow is called the "golden," perhaps this is why? The golden calf at sunset has become a mature golden bull, who mounts his mother, impregnating her so as to be born the next morning as the Golden Calf sun-disc. Archaeologists have found the names of various Pharaohs who honored Hat-Hor in her Sinai shrine and some date from circa 1445 BC and 1260 BC, two dates proposed for the Exodus. Shattered pottery also exists of these two eras at the Hat-Hor shrine and vicinity. Moses descends Mt. Sinai and hears Israel at song and dance, honoring a golden calf. In anger he smashes the two stone tables of the 10 commandments, carved by God from Mt. Sinai. Hat-Hor and Pharaoh were honored with song and dance by her devotees, a prancing flower bedecked bull-calf leading the dancing of the revelers in tomb art. At the base of nearby mounts, in fallen rock scree, archaeologists found the remains of shattered tables of stone bearing protosinaitic inscriptions asking for the Canaanite god El (the Hebrew god is called El) to bless the Canaanite miners who worked the mines under Egyptian supervision. The Hebrew alphabetic script is a descendent of the protosinaitic script found on the shattered stone tables at the base of mounts in the area. The Canaanites worshiped Hat-Hor as Baalat, "the Lady," she was worshiped at Byblos under this Semitic title. I suspect Hat-Hor and the deceased pharaoh she suckled as a bull- calf in tomb art, is behind Exodus' story of the Golden Calf. Google "Mattfeld, Golden Calf" for more info or visit my website, www.bibleorigins.net or click on my name by my photo for my YouTube videos on archaeology and the Bible. I understand that the shattered protosinatic tables became Moses' shattered 10 Commandments, Google "Mattfeld Ten Commandments" for more info and pictures of these stone tablets.
Lisa Bernier (2 years ago)
My people (‘am ‘any), your guides (‘ashar – those who lead the way and who pronounce blessings) lead you astray (ta’ah – cause you to wander away, misleading you into error by deceiving you, intoxicate you, causing you to stumble (hifil stem – the subject causes the object to participate and become similar to them)) and (wa) the courses (derek – ways, conduct, and journey [plural in 1QIsa while singular in the MT]) of your paths (‘orah ‘atah – broad thoroughfare, ways and manners, especially your destiny in life) they have thoroughly confused and hopelessly befuddled (bala’ – misleading you by confounding your understanding to the point you can no longer process information rationally, they have taken you down an improper path by way of their deceitful communications, feeding you that which is bewildering (piel perfect – the object is put into action by the subject for a limited time)).” (Yasha’yah / Salvation is from Yahowah / Isaiah 3:12)
Lisa Bernier (2 years ago)
Yahowah is going to do what He asks of us…“Into (ba) the exercise of good judgment (mishpat – the means to resolve disputes and make justifiable decisions, the rendering of decisions which properly assess a person and situation) Yahowah () will commence (bow’ – come to pursue, participate and engage, entering (qal imperfect)) against (‘im – in association or conjunction with while simultaneously in opposition to) the religious and societal leaders (zaqen – the dignitaries, elders, and community leadership) of His family (‘am huw’ [His is from 1QIsa]) and (wa) the government officials (sar – high ranking military officers, royalty, commanders, princes, and political rulers) thereof (huw’). So (wa) you (‘atem) have senselessly removed (ba’ar – have foolishly replaced and then destroyed, taken away so that it no longer exists, and stupidly set ablaze, thereby devouring (piel perfect – the object suffers the effect for a prescribed period of time)) the vineyard (ha kerem – the cultivated land prepared for growing and harvesting grapes). The possessions stolen (gezelah – the looted plunder and stolen property) from the afflicted and oppressed (ha ‘any – the lowly who have suffered and been harassed and the poor who have been persecuted and impoverished) are in your homes and temples (ba beyth ‘atem – is in your households and dwelling places).” (Yasha’yah / Salvation is from Yahowah / Isaiah 3:14) Societies’ leaders, religious, governmental, and military, will be judged and held accountable by the same standard that has served to liberate Yahowah’s Covenant children: the mishpat. As is the case with most things Yah, the choices we make determine whether or not we are on the right or wrong side of this dividing line between saved and condemned. The mishpat represent “the means to exercise good judgment and to resolve disputes.” If we have done so and acted upon them then we are afforded acceptance into our Heavenly Father’s Covenant Family. But those who openly oppose one or the other aspects of mishpat and who impose their errant ways on others, will find their souls eternally incarcerated in She’owl.
Lisa Bernier (2 years ago)
For this reason, “Yahowah stands up (natsab – He has, is, and will take His stand, He is properly stationed, rigid, solid, and unwavering, He is prominently positioned, determined, and steadfast, upright, and firm to solidly establish the basis (nifal – God is carrying out and receiving the action of this verb)) to actually oppose and hostilely contend with them (la ryb – to dispute and quarrel with them, to file a complaint and bring legal charges against them, showing hostility towards them, to ridicule, taunt, mock, and insult them, to argue against and to dispute them in the controversy they have raised (qal imperfect infinitive construct – actually and literally intensifying the action of a verbal noun on an ongoing basis without respect to time)). And then (wa) He will judge (dyn – He will execute judgment and render an appropriate sentence, imposing a just punishment and condemnation based upon the opposing arguments of (qal infinitive construct)) people (‘am – related individuals).” (Yasha’yah / Salvation is from Yahowah / Isaiah 3:13)
Lisa Bernier (2 years ago)
But no matter the intent of the feminine reference, the problem that Yahowah is addressing is humankind’s propensity to “exploit others by claiming authority to control them while imposing their will to oppress (nagas)” because it “is an evil and childish scheme, demonstrating one’s immaturity and capriciousness, causing untold abuse and suffering (‘alal).” Moreover, “our guides, including those who lead the way and who pronounce blessings (‘ashar) lead us astray, causing us to wander away in error, intoxicated and thus with impaired judgment (ta’ah).” Therefore “the course of our paths, our conduct, manners, and destiny in life (derek ‘orah ‘atah) has become thoroughly confused and hopelessly befuddled, confounding our understanding to the point that we can no longer process information rationally (bala’).” God cannot and will not overlook the consequence of the religious, especially those who have intermingled truth and lies to befuddle billions. And for those in academia, the media, or politics, be careful because nothing has been as effective at dumbing down an entire society to the point as few as one in a million retains the ability to exercise good judgment than Political Correctness – the ignorant and irrational moral code of Socialist Secular Humanism. Universities have become its grand cathedrals and professors are its high priests. Indoctrination has replaced education.
Lisa Bernier (2 years ago)
The Song of the Sea--Shemowth 15:5 w' [the]ruwach [the wind and presence of Yahowah] aph [blew from his nostrils in anger] mayim [the waters] aram [to pile up like rubbble] Stem; Niphal, Mood; Perfect [**which means it literally happened] nazal [flood, flowed forth or down] Stem; Qal Mood Participle active [**that means Yah did it in the active form of the word] natsab [stood upright and firm in its place] Stem:Niphal, Mood Perfect kemow [as it were, like unto] nad [a heap, in the sense of piling up] tahowm [the depths of the abyss, waters also likened to Sheol] qapha [A primitive root; to shrink, that is, thicken (as unracked wine, curdled milk, clouded sky, *frozen water*):—congeal, curdle, dark`, settle.] I guess your ways are not his ways, your thoughts are not his and I would guess right, you love to be up front looking like you know something when you don't know shit. You hate the truth just as much as the fucking rest of the whores sitting in your Circe/Church/Circus filled to the brim with idols and whoredoms on satans sun-day sucking the member of homosexual Paulos, whom is a demon and admitted to such and uplifted a whore called Charis aka Faith, three Grecian goddess/whores, whilst reciting passages from the epic of Dionysis, "It's hard to kick against the goad" Shaul was the wolf warned about, how came out from us but was not of us, while suckling his lover Timothy; this can be corroborated in Towrah from Yahowah's own words that he [Ap]Paullos/Shaul/Shewol likes the genitalia of men. You people are daft as hell. Yahowah call Twistianity the Plague of Death and Shaul calls him a dead god, and breaks with the circumcision which is non-negotiable in Yahowah's torah and calls the Torah a taskmaster and that it made him evil, what a joke. I guess your shittym only works on the m.asses, anyone daft enough to listen to a shit stain who calls the elohym of Yisrael his nemesis name of Baál/LORD which is HaShatan's moniker whilst pretending to be smarter than others is a real douche bag. You dear sir are a top notch fucking douche, stop calling Yahowah by the adversary's name, fucko. Shemowth 15:3 Yahowah is a man of war, Yahowah is his name. Not Baál which means lord, shit stain. I'm sorry, make that Dr. Shit Stain PHD
DylanFan51 (3 years ago)
Stephen Moshier: So you think that God can't do whatever He wants. What you "think" does not matter one bit to him. All of your knowledge is but a speck to Him. You need to go work w/ Isreal Finklestein.
Justin Holbrook (3 years ago)
WRONG! At 42 mins, This geoligist attributes the anomalous Great Split down the huge rock atop Mt. Horab to some natural tectonic processes. LOLOLOLOL I love how he speeds thru that topic and doesnt show a comprehensive close look at the split! (Sarcasm) Skepticism is a necessary evil, yes. But when scientists infuse skepticism w/ cynicism, at that point they are expressing a tendecy towards their own Worldview and is NOT true, objective science! Jebe-el-lawz has practically NO rainfall (2-3 in./yr at most). When this rock is examined up close, The large split shows overwhelming traces of Water erosion and smooth-faced surface features very similar to surfaces found on rocks and, more importantly, the surface of a river's bedrock after yrs of waters running atop it. VERY smooth and VERY straight! Moreover, the rock surfaces below that great rock in Saudia Arabia show clear evidences of heavy water flow over a good period of time. There is no doubt what this rock is, and it is verified by the features around it in that area, especially the amazing features suggesting past-supernatural activity at Jebel-el-lawz (the true Mt. Sinai, or Mt. of God) and the incredible man-made altar structures, carvings, and dwellings in the valley below. The place is an exact description of what is found in Exodus. This hypothesis of a "Day's Journey" presented by these men are completely irrelevant to the issue. It is scientifically unquestioned that humans are physically devolving, though we may very well be intellectually evolving, and a "day's journey" for a human today would not equate to the abilities of VERY fit Jewish slaves thousands of yrs ago, whom I assume were also very well adapted to the desert climate and physical demands of that region, especially when they are moving with a heightened sense of URGENCY! (Suspecting Pharaoh n his army would be on their trail at some point.) Plus, God was on their side. That might make for a large boost in awareness and energy. BTW The Bible says that they also traveled at night! The cloud of God leading them during the day, a blazing swirl of fire at night.

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